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πŸ”˜ Tesla Model S + 125kWh Battery Delivers 420 Mile Range β€’ Range Anxiety is Abated πŸ”˜

January 29, 2017

πŸ”˜ Model S with 125kWh Lithium Battery configuration is prominently focused on Tesla engineering tables. This higher capacity will Deliver 420 Mile Rated Range. Tesla recently released the Model S 100D with a 100kWh Battery powered car, that delivers 335 Mile Range for the Model S.

πŸ”˜ Range Anxiety is Real. Recent surveys of Electric Car Drivers and soon-to-be Electric-Car-Drivers reveals that 45% of this group are truly anxious about “Running out of Power”. Couple this notion with the limited number of TESLA super-charger stations in circulation (currently less than 1000 in the USA), a Model S for example, having a 335 mile range currently, and 420 mile range in the future, makes “running out of battery” less worrisome when traveling out of town. When and if a 125kWh Battery is made available in Tesla Cars, it be employing their new LiON 2170 LiON cell design.

πŸ”˜ Perspective – Tesla Model S with 125kWh Lithium Battery. To give perspective for the significance of a 125kWh Battery, it delivers 420 miles of driving range. In comparison, for a gasoline powered Luxury sedan, a Mercedes 450 SEL or a Lexus 500, that delivers an average of 24mpg, this is the equivalent to a 17Β½ Gallon Gas Tank. (Math 420m/24mpg=17.5) Therefore a 125kWh battery should be considered the “Energy Standard” for the Model S and X Cars, as a 17Β½ Gallon fuel tank [equivalency] is certainly not “overkill” considering the limited number of Super Charges installed, (under 1000 in the US) as compared to 160,000 gas stations in the US.

πŸ”˜ Tesla’s LiON 21700 Cell design, Tesla engineers have labeled this unique design the “2170” cell, chopping of the trailing “0.” The 2170 cell nomenclature defines a geometric cylinder, with a Diameter of 21mm, (radius = d/2 or 10.5mm) and a height of 70mm. The formula for the volume of the 2170 design cell is: ΒΆ(rΒ²)(h)mmΒ³, substitute the values for Pi, radius and height: 3.14159(10.5)Β²(70)mmΒ³. This equates to 24,245mmΒ³. Similarly, the Volume of the original 18650 cell is: 3.14159(9)Β²(65)mmΒ³. This equates to 16,540mmΒ³.

πŸ”˜ The new LiON 2170 cell is 145% greater in size (24245/16540=145%) than the industry standard 18650 LiON cell. Extrapolated, if the 2170 cell is 145% larger than the 18650 cell, the Energy Capacity may similarly be 145% greater than the 18650 cell. Since the 2170 cell is 3mm wider anmmd 5mm taller, seemingly, Tesla engineers may be able to more tightly pack the 2170 cells into the 16 Modules. Tesla says the New Model 3 and subsequent Model S and X cars will all employ 2170 cells housed in totally re-Engineered Modules and Battery design. This new 2170 cell and module design may be the answer for an actual 420 Mile Rated Range Tesla Car.

πŸ”˜ Recall 420 miles in rated-range, becomes 360 Real Range: 420-20-20-20=360. as (A) folks shouldn’t drive their cars into their garage or Super Charger station “On Empty” – lets arrive at one’s garage charger with -20 miles of energy remaining, (B) plus running a variety of accessories, Enhanced AutoPilot, True Self Driving, Climate Control, Super Audio System, negative aerodynamic drag due to premium Large Rim wheels… all of which may effect Range by -20 miles, (C) Also lets charge the LiON Battery to 95% for routine driving, a bit higher than the 90% TESLA recommends, effecting range by -20 miles. If going on an out-of-town drive, Tesla permits charging the LiON Battery to 99%, adding back 20 miles of range for your trip.

πŸ”˜ Tesla Motor released a 100 kWh LiON battery-pack in 2017; TESLA did not replace the 90 kWh battery as many expected. Tesla has also changed the 70 kWh battery capacity to 75 kWh. A recent dissection of the P100D battery shows that Tesla leveraged the same design concept by distributing a total of 8,256 battery cells (up from 7,102 cells in Tesla’s Model S 85D) across the 16 modules, making up the new 100kWh battery pack. Tesla added 72 LiON cells [in parallel] into each of the 16 modules, an additional 1,152 Lion cells, keeps the 400DC voltage consistent, but increasing power to 250 Amps. This brings the total capacity of the Battery Pack to the advertised 100 kWh. However, Tesla is actually providing 102.4 kWh of capacity for the 100D pack, marginally higher than what’s labeled.

πŸ”˜ Tesla’s release of the 75 kWh Battery includes a “Software Switch” reducing the 75 kWh capacity to 60 kWh in effort to create “entry level” pricing for the Model X and S cars, to $60,000. This marketing plan is in place to convince some Model 3 Reservationists to Jump Now into one of these two Cars, rather than wait 12 to 24 months for the Model 3. Last year Tesla updated the 85 kWh battery, and replaced it with the 90 kWh battery; the 100 kWh Power Pack has been released in January, 2017, rendering an impressive EPA Range of 335 Miles for the Model S 100D, the non-performance configuration.

πŸ”˜ There is something Magical about 100 kWh and 335 mile EPA Rated Range, particularly when it comes to RANGE and Zero Emissions Automotive Power.

πŸ”˜ But there is something even More Magical about a Real 425 Mile Range. Some say that a 425 mile range may not be necessary. Baloney! With an additional 25% increase in power capacity from the 100kWh to 125kWh; this will deliver some 425 miles in Range.

πŸ”˜ Think about this, converting 400 miles driven, with your Luxury Gasoline Car requires a 21ΒΎ Gallon Fuel Tank, assuming your Luxury 4,600 pound Gasoline-Car can actually deliver 19MPG miles per gallon assuming Cityβ€’60%:Highwayβ€’40% driving. EPA milage ratings for “gasoline engine powers cars” have been a “Quasi-Accurate” promulgated by the Government and Domestic Auto Makers. Remember, when ratings are “calculated” generally with all Accessories and Air Conditioning not running. Turn on the A/C and some accessories, the Range Rating may be 6% to 8% overstated.

πŸ”˜ Imagine a BMW or Mercedes Dealer saying to you “…a 13ΒΎ Gallon Fuel Tank is all you Need, equating to a 260 mile range assuming 19mpg…” Baloney! Similarly for the Model X and S Cars, a 100kWh battery delivering 335 Mile Range may not be really be sufficient considering the “currently” inadequate number of Tesla Super-Charger Stations available, less than 1000 locations in the USA and of Jan, 2017 (that can “pump” 170 Miles of Range per 30 minute charge).

πŸ”˜ Know this, there are 160,000 Gasoline Stations nationally (that literally Pump gasoline, delivering over 300 Miles of Range into the fuel-tank in less than 5 minutes). In all fairness there are roughly 30,000 non-Tesla Charger Stations such as CHARGE-POINT stations; however, the charging current is significantly low, delivering only 10 to 14 miles of range with 30 minutes of being plugged-in, striking argument for Longer Range Tesla Batteries.

πŸ”˜ 335 Miles of Range – Let’s Examine what the Real Range may be – Turn on the Air Conditioning, Running lighting, Sound System, Navigation System, AutoPilot, and a few other Accessories, add your high performance 21″ rims… you may loose -5% or more of your Range (say -15 miles), now we’re down to 320 Mile Range, (335-15=320). Tesla is also recommending, “…Do not charge your LiON Battery routinely above 90%” for your Battery’s Health & Longevity; lets charge to 95%, this is another -5% or 15 miles loss in range, bringing your Tesla Rated Battery, to a Range of 335 Miles to 305 Miles(335-15-15=305).

πŸ”˜ Tesla’s Real Range – One More Point: Lets not forget we’re not likely to drive into our Garage, Office, Shopping Center or a local Fueling Station with near-Zero Miles on the Energy-Gauge, particularly with limited number of TESLA Super-Chargers available. Therefore take away another 25 miles of Range, the functional-equivalent of our Gas-Gauge turning Red or Yellow, signaling “Fuel-tank Reserve” is in use. This brings the 335 Rated Range of the 100kWh battery to 280 Miles Real Range (Math: 335-15-15-25 = 280 Range in Miles). Therefor, with all the fanfare of a 335 rated mile range is really 280 miles of driving range; much better than any competition, but more is better with the lack of rapid charging station. Tesla needs a Larger 125kWh Battery “to eliminate range anxiety.”

πŸ”˜ Tesla Model S Power Train Options. As of January, 2017 Tesla Motors Design Studio offers the following 7 Battery Capacities, with and without the “D” Option, designating Dual Motor design, delivering all-wheel drive. Notice that the minimum price jumps quite a bit higher with the “P” performance version of the D100P as a number of Options are bundled with the Performance package. Notice, there are $18,000 additional options representing my personal choice of a “Loaded” Model S 60, (excluded Sub-Zero Weather Systems $1000, Rear Facing Seats $4000, transportation, tag & taxes); However, a “Loaded” Model S 60 includes: Enhanced Autopilot $5000, Full Self Driving Capability $3000, Premium, Upgrade Interior Package $3500, Smart Suspension $2500, Ultra High Fidelity Sound $2500, and theHigh Amperage 72A Charger Upgrade $1500 which delivers about 30 Miles of Range per Hour, suitable for one’s Garage overnight charging.

β€’ Model S 60, priced from $68,000 to $92,300

β€’ Model S 60D, priced from $73,000 to $91,000

β€’ Model S 75, priced from $74,500 to $92,500

β€’ Model S 75D, priced from $79,500 to $97,500

β€’ Model S 90D, priced from $89,500 to $107,500

β€’ Model S 100D, priced from $92,500 to $110,500

β€’ Model S P100D, priced from $134,500 to 144,500

πŸ”˜ Let’s Create a TESLA 420 Mile Range Battery (not available yet) – How many Miles of Range do you really get. When we drive our Luxury Tesla Model S, we surely are going to use all those exciting Accessories, the amazing Sound System, Lighting, and the Air Conditioner, Enhanced AutoPilot & Self Driving Navigation Systems, the 21″ high performance Wheels for example… These accessories may consume 5% of the Power, which effects a -20 Miles on Range. Again, Tesla recommends “for the Health & Longevity of your Tesla Car Battery Pack do not routinely charge the Battery Over 90% daily” but lets “Top it off” a bit more to 95% – this represents -20 miles effect on Range off the Top. We’re not done yet. You cant take the risk of driving into your garage, office or shopping center, with ZERO miles in the fuel-tank, we need a “Fuel Reserve” – Lets set the electric fuel reserve to 5%, effects -20 Miles on total Range, as there are Too Few Super-Charging stations currently. Most Gasoline Car companies set their “Emergency Fuel Light” to illuminate at a 25 Mile Reserve remaining in the Tank. This brings our fictional 420 mile Rated Range of our new fictional 125kWh battery to 360 Miles of Usable Range (Math: 420-20-20-20 = 360 Usable Range in Miles, about 85% of the Rated Miles).

πŸ”˜ Tesla Model S and X Cars 335 miles in Rated Range equates to 285 Miles in Real Range.

πŸ”˜ Tesla Model S and X Cars 420 miles in Rated Range equates to 360 Miles in Real Range.

πŸ”˜ Tesla Model S and X Cars the Real Range equates to 85% of the EPA Rated Mile Range.

πŸ”˜ With 160,000 Gas Stations in the USA that are currently pumping Gasoline and Diesel Fuel, literally Pumping 350 to 400 Miles of Range into passenger car Fuel Tanks, requiring less than a 5 minute for the Fill-Up. There are Far Fewer Fast Charging Stations Lets say 1000 stations exist across the US to Fast Charge Tesla Electric Cars. No wonder there is significant Range Anxiety with potential Electric Car Owners, self included.

πŸ”˜ Presently there are NO “Public EV Car Chargers” that can “Pump DC Juice” for 400 Miles of Range in 5 Minutes. Can Not be done in 10 Minutes, Not in 20 Minutes, Not in 30, not in 40, 50, or 60 Minutes for a Fill-Up. Tesla’s Super Charger Stations (now 682) currently deliver 170 miles of range in 30 minutes. This problem exists Today and likely for the next 4 or 5 years, until a more robust Fast-Charger Network exists – all the more reason why TESLA and other EV Car makers, need to deliver 420-Mile Range Cars.

πŸ”˜ Two Battery Capacities for Tesla Model X and S, will be 60 kWh, 75 kWh, 90kWh and 100 kWh for now. However, 100 kWh LinON Battery Packs should not be the end of the kWh “Race” – I’d rather call increasing Miles of Range an important kWh Goal. It’s not really about kWh, it’s about Miles of Range, but the terms are directly linked. Once the Model S and X achieve a Real 400 Miles of Range, stability with Tesla kWh Battery Capacities will be achieved.

πŸ”˜ Model X and S Luxury Cars – Two Battery Capacities 75 kWh and 125 kWh, all other Capacities Software-enabled or switched, if these choices were up to me, which it is not. Huge Problem: assessing a $8500 Premium to increase the 60 kWh capacity to 75 kWh, which Adds 39 Mile Range seems “ludicrous,” sorry for the word choice. Perhaps ridiculous would be better.

πŸ”˜ Let’s add 39 Miles of Range for $8,500 – really, you’ve got to be kidding. Apparently the development costs for Tesla’s LiON Battery Pack is way “Out of Balance” with the Model X and Model S Cars’ Total Cost. Tesla’s Gigafactory is supposed to decrease the LiON battery pack cost by 35%.

πŸ”˜ Tesla’s Marketing strategy currently is to Lower the Entry-level Cost of the Model S to around $60,000 and Model X to $70,000 in attempt to “convert” some of the Model 3 Reservation folks to Get the Model S and X Now, rather than waiting 18 months for the Model 3. TESLA needs to step-up the engineering efforts to Lower the Cost of the LiON Battery Pack.

πŸ”˜ TESLA needs to accommodate their “X and S early adopters” with a 400 Mile Range Model X and S Cars, call these costs “an Investment for the Future of Tesla.” Many of the Model X and S cars are delivered on 36 month leases. When they come back at the lease maturity, the Next Tesla Owner may want a commuter Model X or S with modest Range, or the Next Owner may want Max Range. Tesla cannot “hammer” the next owners with a $20,000 up-charge for 150 Miles of Range increase…

πŸ”˜ Tesla’s Model X and Model S Cars Run on 7,104 individual LiON Cells. It’s hard to Believe that Tesla’s 5,200 pound Luxury Car runs on thousands of Flash-Light batteries, literally 7 thousand of them. The currently discussed increase in capacity of the “LiON Battery” to the 100 kWh Capacity, albeit involving thousands of LiOn cells, is accomplished by re-Engineering the individual Cell structure and composition of rare-earths (in Tesla’s new Gigafactory) rather than simply adding more Cells.

πŸ”˜ Tesla Cars – Recall most of the entire “floor-board” for the Model X and Model S Cars, is a Steel-Encased array of 7,104 individual LiON cells, arranged into 16-modules of LiON batteries, where each module contains 444 LiON cells, delivering 25vDC. Each module contains 6 Rows of 74 LiON batteries.

πŸ”˜ Battery LiON Cells Count and the LiON Power Math, both relatively simple: The LiON battery Cell count for 16 Modules, each containing 444 LiON Cells: {16x(6×74)=7,104}. The Electric Math is simple too: 16 Modules delivering 25vDC each, equates to 400vDC: {16x25vDC=400vDC}. As to Power which equates Amps [times] Volts: 230 Amps at 400vDC delivers 92 kWh of Power. The Power Math: {230×400=92,000} Converting Watts of Power to kWh: {92,000 Watts-Hrs = 92 kWh}

πŸ”˜ A 100 kWh Battery will earn the Model S an EPA Range of 335 Miles, up from 288 miles with the 90 kWh battery. Earlier in 2016, Tesla removed the 85 kWh battery option on new orders [as of mid-May] and streamlined its Model S battery options to 70 kWh and 90 kWh, similar to what’s available on the Model X.

πŸ”˜ Think about this – imagine Buying a $95,000 luxury car with a 12.9 Gallon Gas tank – that’s a comparison to Tesla’s current Max Battery options today – it’s just NOT Enough Juice. Combine a 12.9 Gallon Gas Tank comparison with the lack of a suitable network of FAST CHARGER Stations, a true 400 mile range must be Tesla’s Target, a 125 kWh battery in my opinion.

πŸ”˜ Tesla’s GigaFactory has created a new LiON Cell: 20mm in diameter by 70mm tall, their unique 20700 LiON Cell. This new technology is reported to deliver 33% greater power than its sister cell the 18650 LiON Cell (used in the 2015 Model S cars), at no additional material cost. Therefore, if TESLA substitutes the 7,104 LiON 18650 cells with 7,104 LiON 20700 cells, then the Model S and Model X would have a 125kWh battery delivering a 400 mile range…

πŸ”˜ Tesla Model S Commuter Car. Those Model S drivers that desire a 200 Mile Range Car, fine, a 60kWh Battery is perfect for these drivers. My suggestion, build all Model S cars with a 100kWh battery (or a 125kWh battery) and “software-limit” its capacity to 60 kWh. After all, in three years or so, if the Next Model S owner may want a longer range battery, the car already has a Longer-Range battery, which can be “software unlocked” from 60kWh.

πŸ”˜ Lets turn our attention to two other major components in the Tesla Drive Unit, the Tesla Model S and X Motor and DC Current Inverter. Tesla employs 3-phase 4-pole frequency controlled AC induction motors in the power-train of all its Model S and X cars, the original design by Nikola Tesla circa 1896. The speed and power controller operating the Tesla Power-Train, manages current flow and frequency of the AC power emitted from Tesla’s custome power-inverter.

πŸ”˜ The Tesla Model S motor rotates from 5000 rpm to 8000 rpm; however, the power emanating from the 3-phase 4 pole frequency controlled AC Induction Motor, (capable of drawing a 1600 to 2000 amp surge) is primarily controlled by the Frequency of the AC power delivered to the Motor. The complex circuitry relating to modifying the frequency of the AC sine-wave, that regulates the power-output of the 3-phase 4 pole frequency controlled AC induction motor, is managed by either (A) the Driver’s depression of the Accelerator Pedal, or (B) by the AutoPilot System. A relatively smooth frequency controlled sine-wave is emitted from the 3 Phase, 4 Poll Power-Inverter. Power emanating from the Motor is controlled by a high frequency pulse-trigger circuitry, that modifies the Sine-Wave Frequency of the AC current running into the MOTOR. The pulse-trigger electronics is capable of emitting electro-magnetic interference, EMI, as the pulse-trigger is a On-OFF pulse square wave. Tesla drivers have mentioned that when listening to traditional AM Radio, there is significant radio interference; AM Radio is known to be sensitive to static electricity and low frequency EMI. However, FM Ratio operation is not subject to low frequency spectrum EMI, that may emanate from Tesla’s Power Drive Unit.

πŸ”˜ Tesla Motors’ Power-Inverter, changing DC to AC power is similar in design, and used in Solar City’s residential Power-Wall units. Most, if not all household appliances, A/C compressor motors, motorized appliances, Washing Machines & Dryers, and household electronics are designed for a smooth AC sine-wave power source, similar to the 60cps AC sine-wave current supplied by municipal public Electricity Utilities; however, the household inverter does not require a variable frequency pulse-trigger, as the frequency must be 60 cycles per second AC power.

πŸ”˜ Tesla has a 100 kWh Battery “On the Bench” at their Nevada GigaFactory. A “technically inclined” member of the Tesla community, Jason Hughes, recently hacked into his [personally owned Model S] onboard [Car] computer software; Hughes uncovered a string of program-code referencing the “P100D” shield. Hughes asked [tweeted] @ElonMusk directly about the P100D reference, Musk did respond, however, without denying the P100D possibility.

πŸ”˜ 400 Mile Range with a 125 kWh Battery, is where Tesla LiON Battery Capacity really needs to be, IMHO. 400 Mile Range should be the “Standard” Battery-pack, with any Lower Range being the “lower price” option. [(288Γ·90)x125=400].

πŸ”˜ Tesla Cars should have a 400 Mile rated Range, while the infrastructure of Tesla Chargers continues to expand. Plus it’s common knowledge that EPA ratings exclude operation of certain accessories like Air Conditioning. Turn on the A/C and Sound System, then the Model S Range drops by roughly 11%. Also Tesla recommends that users limit the filling of the battery routinely to “90%” to maximize battery-capacity-life. Therefor, even with an EPA rated 400 mile range, it’s effectively a 360 range, when using Accessories.

πŸ”˜ GigaFactory, Reason #1 – Magic for Tesla’s Lithium Battery production. Tesla is pressing Hard to deliver hundreds of thousands of Cars per year in the near future. Currently Tesla’s 90 kWh Battery contains literally 7,104 rechargeable LiON Battery Cells [pictured at left], all lined up within 16 modules of 444 cells each.

πŸ”˜ Tesla is Delivering 75,000 Cars per Year currently. This Year’s [2016] Production Level requires 533 Million LiON Battery Cells, capturing a significant portion of the entire World’s Supply-Line of Lithium Cells. As Tesla delivers more Cars, the demand for LiON Cells increases, if the Supply of LiON Cells remains stable, prices go Up. For Tesla to deliver their Cars at a reasonable Price, Tesla needs to Build both Cars and LiON Batteries.

πŸ”˜ When Tesla Delivers 250,000 Cars late next year [2017 for example] this production level would require 1.77 Billion LiON Battery Cells, more than the entire World’s Supply-Line of Lithium Cells. This is precisely why Tesla built its own Battery Factory in Nevada. Why Nevada?

πŸ”˜ Pure Energy Minerals Limited is under contract with Tesla Motors to mine the primary element continued in LiOn batteries, Lithium from local Nevada lithium mines, relatively close [200 mile circle] to the Factory. This is another reason for the location of their unique Battery Factory. Tesla has agreed to buy Lithium, actually 40,000 Tons of Lithium Hydroxide/Year, a byproduct of the mining process. Tesla chemists will then refine Lithium Hydroxide and purify the Lithium for use in LiON battery chemistry.

πŸ”˜ GigaFactory Reason #2 – Tesla will Customize the Industry Standard 18650 Lithium Cell. Tesla–Panasonic venture will “tweaked” the (A) 18650 LiON Cell, by making it 2mm larger in Diameter and 5mm taller, creating the new 20700 Cell and (B) tweaking the Anode, Cathode, and Chemistry of the Cell.

πŸ”˜ Lithium Battery Development is a very Big Deal as we’re talking about several BILLION batteries Annually. The resultant increase in the Cell size [10%] will deliver 133% More Power without increasing cost due to up-scaling production. This is how Tesla gets to a 125 kWh Battery with the similar cost as the 90 kWh battery. The other benefit Tesla can deliver a 220 mile range battery [60 kWh] for the Model 3, at a significantly lower cost, relatively speaking.

πŸ”˜ Tesla 120 kWh Battery is on the way, it’s a matter of when. This will Drive the Model S and X to a 400 mile range, the ideal comfort-range, particularly with everyone being “afraid of running out of juice.”

πŸ”˜ Around Town, not many folks have issues with the 90 kWh Battery or the new 100 kWh capacity Battery, assuming they have home-garage chargers. However, if you are traveling 200 miles out of town, Current Tesla Capacities are NOT sufficient for COMFORT. When one spends $100k for a very attractive Car, a beautiful package of engineering…

πŸ”˜ Worrying about your Model X Running out of Juice, is not where we want to be. We believe Elon Musk gets it, on this point.

πŸ”˜ EPA determined Tesla Model S 90D Electric Car earned a Milage Rating: 101eMPG City : 107eMPG Highway, 103 eMPG overall. These figures are amazing for a 5,000+ pound luxury electric Car. eMPG is the petroleum-fuel-equivalency, for rating Electric Powered Cars. The 3 TESLA’s Electric Propulsion Cars, the Model-S, Model-X, and the new Model-3, Cost Lower than 3Β½Β’ per Mile Driven for all Tesla Electric Cars [EPA Chart below].

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πŸ”‹ Fuel Cost for TESLA’s Electric Propulsion Cars. Today’s Cost of Electricity averages 9.338Β’ per Kilowatt Hour, in Florida. The Cost to operate TESLA’s Electric Cars at the current electric Utility charge of 9.338Β’/kWh is on average $725 for 15,000 miles driven (see EPA chart below)

πŸ›’ Electricity Cost of 9.338Β’/kWh equals 3Β½Β’/mile driven for Tesla Model S, Model X and Model 3 Electric Cars (with No exhaust fumes containing COβ‚‚ & CO, plus No Noxious Gasses, No Soot discharged into our atmosphere).

πŸ›’ Fuel Cost for Gasoline Powered Cars with 300hp Engines consumes on average 22MPG, miles per gallon. Therefor, for each 15,000 miles driven, 625 Gallons of gasoline are consumed (with Exhaust Fumes containing COβ‚‚ and CO, Noxious Gasses and Soot, that are discharged into the atmosphere).

πŸ›’ Current Gas Prices are a Low of $2.25/Gallon, then the Cost to drive 15,000 miles is $1,406 or 9.35Β’ per Mile Driven with Gasoline Engine Powered Cars.

πŸ›’ Several Years ago Gasoline prices were over $4.25 per Gallon; We may likely experience similar increased Gasoline prices again in a few years. Therefor, for the same 15,000 miles driven, and the same 625 Gallons of Gas purchased (for 22mpg Cars) the Gasoline Cost would increase to $2,656 (at $4.25/Gallon of Gasoline).

πŸ›’ $4.25/Gallon Gas equates to 17.75Β’ per Mile Driven. Notice the examples for the Cost of Gasoline followed by the Cost of Electricity and their respective Driving Costs/Mile. Values for Gas cost/mile 10.40Β’/mile for Electric Car cost/mile 3.34Β’/mile [as of May, 2016].

Gasoline Powered Cars: 24mpg Engines: Cost for Mile Driven

πŸ›’ $2.00 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 8.30Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $2.25 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 9.35Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $2.50 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 10.40Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $2.75 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 11.45Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $3.00 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 12.50Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $3.25 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 13.55Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $3.50 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 14.60Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $3.75 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 15.65Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $4.00 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 16.70Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $4.25 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 17.75Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $4.50 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 18.80Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $4.75 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 19.85Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $5.00 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 20.90Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $5.25 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 21.95Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $5.50 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 23.00Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $5.75 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 24.05Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ›’ $6.00 / Gallon: Cost to Drive equals: 24.10Β’ / Mile Driven

TESLA Electric Cars: 90 kWh LiON Battery: Cost / Mile Driven

πŸ”‹ TESLA Electric Cars: Electricity Cost 09Β’ / kWh: 3.35Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ”‹ TESLA Electric Cars: Electricity Cost 9.3Β’ / kWh: 3.48Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ”‹ TESLA Electric Cars: Electricity Cost 10Β’ / kWh: 3.72Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ”‹ TESLA Electric Cars: Electricity Cost 11Β’ / kWh: 4.09Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ”‹ TESLA Electric Cars: Electricity Cost 12Β’ / kWh: 4.46Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ”‹ TESLA Electric Cars: Electricity Cost 13Β’ / kWh: 4.83Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ”‹ TESLA Electric Cars: Electricity Cost 14Β’ / kWh: 5.20Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ”‹ TESLA Electric Cars: Electricity Cost 15Β’ / kWh: 5.58Β’ / Mile Driven
πŸ”‹ TESLA Electric Cars: Electricity Cost 16Β’ / kWh: 5.95Β’ / Mile Driven

πŸ›’ Gasoline price fluctuations, do not directly relate to the current 12Β’/kWh Electrical Power Costs to the Public, according to the EPA. A significant portion of Nation’s Electrical Power Generation is fueled by four main sources other than the thousands of Petroleum (Oil or Diesel) Fueled Power Plants, plus a number of Geo Thermal, Wind and Solar Powered Plants, according to current EPA statistics:

(A) 99 Nuclear Power Reactors in 30 States
(B) 557 Coal Powered Electric Power Plants
(C) 7,304 Natural Gas Powered Electric Plants, plus
(D) 2,540 HydroElectric Powered Dams in the USA.

πŸ”˜ Tesla Model S History and Now – Tesla Model S was styled by Franz von Holzhausen, who previously worked for Mazda North American Operations. The car was codenamed WhiteStar during research and preliminary development. The Model S was announced in a press release on June 30, 2008. The prototype vehicle was displayed at a press conference on March 26, 2009, pictured above.

πŸ”˜ In February 2008 Tesla Motors was planning to offer a range-extended version of its Model S. This version would have included a gasoline engine to extend the driving range of the vehicle; but it was promptly removed in a later revision. At the GoingGreen conference in September 2008 Tesla’s CEO, Elon Musk, announced that Tesla was developing only all-electric cars.

πŸ”˜ Tesla manufactures the Model S at its 5Β½ Million square foot Tesla Factory in Fremont, California. For the European market, Tesla assembles and distributes from its European Distribution Center in Tilburg, the Netherlands. Cars are built and tested in Fremont, California. The battery pack, the electric motor and parts are disassembled and shipped separately to Tilburg, where the cars are reassembled, a 203,000 sq ft industrial building that also serves as a workshop and spare parts warehouse. Tesla expects the Model S to “pay back” the energy that went into producing the car in fewer than 10,000 miles.

πŸ”˜ Tesla Model S is a full-sized all-electric five-door, luxury liftback, produced by Tesla Motors, and introduced in June 2012. Tesla’s Model S scored a perfect 5.0 NHTSA automobile safety rating. ( The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) official range for the 2012 Model S Performance model equipped with an 85 kWh battery pack is 265 miles, higher than any other electric car at the time. EPA rates its energy consumption at 38 kWh/100 mi for a combined fuel economy of 104 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent.

πŸ”˜ The Model S became the first electric car to top the monthly new car sales ranking in any country, twice leading in Norway, in September and again in December 2013, and also in Denmark in December 2015. Global Model S sales passed the 100,000 Model S sales Milestone in December 2015.

πŸ”˜ Tesla Model S ranked as the world’s best selling plug-in electric vehicle in 2015, up from second best in 2014. The Model S also ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in the U.S. in 2015. As of December 2015, the leading markets are the United States with a 60% share of global sales and Norway with 9.4%. Other leading country markets are China, the Netherlands, Canada, Denmark, Germany, and Switzerland. As of December 2015, the Model S ranks as the world’s second best selling plug-in car in history after the Nissan Leaf.

πŸ”˜ The Tesla Model S won awards including the 2013 World Green Car of the Year, 2013 Motor Trend Car of the Year, Automobile magazine’s 2013 Car of the Year, Time Magazine Best 25 Inventions of the Year 2012 award and Consumer Reports’ top-scoring car ever. In 2015, Car and Driver named the Model S the Car of the Century.

πŸ”˜ In 2016 Tesla has completely updated design of Model S. Model S nose now looks more like the Model 3. Also, 60 and 85 versions are now discontinued. Only 70, 70D and 90D versions are available. In May 2016, the 75 and 75D versions became available. Facelifted 70 and 70D Model S owners have the option to ‘unlock’ the 75 kWh capacity, adding up to 19 miles per charge.

πŸ”˜ 🚘 AutoPilot Trained with 50 Million Miles of Driving Experience πŸ”˜ Co-PILOT for Tesla DRIVERS πŸ”˜ Autonomous Driving Soon 🚘 UPDATE 3 🚘 🚘 🚘

πŸ”˜ Tesla AutoPilot is NOW the Co-Pilot for all Tesla Drivers – AutoPilot having over 50 Million Miles of “Driving Experience under its Belt.” AutoPilot serves all Tesla Drivers as their Personal Driving Assistant, like a Co-Pilot. As excellent as it is, AutoPilot is still in its initial Beta form into 2017.

πŸ”˜ The Future of the Personal Driving Experience is True Autonomous Driving, which may come sooner than many expect. My guess, Tesla would like AutoPilot to be released from Beta concurrent with Model 3 emerging from the Production Line Q4.2017

πŸ”˜ Think of Tesla Model S and Model X AutoPilot feature, as being similar to the Autopilot in a Commercial Airliner. In world of Aviation, the Pilot manually Backs-out the Airplane from the Gate or Hanger, Taxies onto the Runway, performs the Take-Off [a High-Skills portion of the Flight], the Captain continues to “Pilot” the Airplane with Hands-on-the-Wheel at all times, until the flight is “stabilized” into the Flight-Plan’s route. Once the flight has completed the Take-Off routine and is on its flight-plan [the FAA’s “highway lane” in the sky] the Pilot engages the [aircraft version] of Autopilot to handle the “tedious” portion of the Flight, maintaining altitude, course, and tracking all the “vital signs” of the aircraft, it’s engines, fuel levels, temperatures, cabin pressure and temp… Tesla is apparently styling their AutoPilot System similarly.

πŸ”˜ Predictions: Elon Musk is totally “Driven to deliver true Autonomous Tesla Cars,” and to deliver attractive, affordable, high performance, electric Cars for the Mass Market. Tesla, having received over 400,000 Model 3 Reservations with $1,000 deposits, (represents $400 million in cash deposits) Tesla’s affordable $35,000 Car will begin emerging from its Fremont, California Production Line in late 2017; so it seems that Tesla’s desire for “mass market” appeal is a reality. Elon Musk says, when it begins to contact the first portion of the reservation-list, customers will be directed to Tesla’s Design Center. As the Model 3 is not ready yet, this is the Design Center link for the Model S:

πŸ”˜ Model 3 Buyer Options – Musk estimates that Buyers of the Model 3 will likely add several options, for roughly $8000. Here a few of the Options that may be available for the Model 3: Long Range Battery, All Wheel Drive, AutoPilot, Smart Air-Suspension, Ultra High-fidelity Sound package, to name a few. This is a link to the Design Center for the Model S, as the Model 3 Design and Options tool is will not be ready until mid-2017:

πŸ”˜ Model 3 Update – Recent reports from Tesla Motors indicate that by early July, 2016, all the remaining “Model 3 engineering decisions will be made,” finalizing the Model 3 production design. This Milestone sets into motion the fabrication of 8000 unique parts in the supply-line, to assemble the New Model 3.

πŸ”˜ Next, is Autonomous Driving, to accomplish [selectable] autonomous driving, Tesla is collecting massive levels of Driving-Data, for Two primary purposes
(1) Prove Safety Statistically, with Tesla’s AutoPiloting Systems engaged, incident-free, safe-driving is significantly improved, as compared to unassisted Human Driving
(2) Train the AutoPilot to further Improve its Prediction Accuracy
(β€’β€’) With 50 million mile data-set has been Assimilated [a 6 month driving sample] the Frequency of Accidents is 50% Lower with AutoPilot engaged, as compared to Drivers not engaging AutoPilot, according to Elon Musk.

πŸ”˜ Decreasing Driving-Incidents by 50% using AutoPilot that’s still in Beta form is astounding. The Insurance industry is taking notice. Combine these factors with Tesla’s assembly of
(A) Best software engineers
(B) Best mechanical engineers
(C) Tesla’s 50% increase in the size of its Fleet of Cars on the Roads, delivering Driving-Data back to Tesla’s MainFrame Computers
(D) Tesla’s collection and assimilation of the Next 50 million mile Data-Set, will occur exponentially faster
(β€’β€’) Accordingly, Tesla hopefully will release its Software Iterations more rapidly [current version is 7.1] incorporating exciting new features, improved reliability, performing more tasks semi-Autonomously.

πŸ”˜ So the Cycle of Teaching AutoPilot continues, as Tesla DRIVERS Teach their AutoPilots, how to Drive Better and Better. See, it’s Tesla Driver Intervention with AutoPilot’s errant predictions, that teaches the AutoPilot; Tesla engineers assimilate these occurrences, then the entire Fleet of Tesla Cars are updated with the “Lessons Learned.” This is the nature of Computer-Machine Learning.

πŸ”˜ Model S and Model X AutoPilot Software is designed to actually “Learn to Drive Better.” Over 100,000 Tesla Drivers are actually training the AutoPilot system every Day, so the Software becomes better over time. Next year there will be over 200,000 Tesla Drivers training the AutoPilot. The latest software update 7.1 allows Model S and Model X Cars to use its unique array of cameras, radar, ultrasonic sensors, GPS and an increasing Data-Base of Driving-Data, to automatically steer down the highway, change lanes, recognize cars around it, adjust speed, and maneuver in response to traffic conditions.

πŸ”˜ Tesla Drivers are Teaching their “Cars to Drive Better,” literally. Tesla’s 1Q/16 Car Software update 7.1, has increased the Driver’s confidence behind the wheel with features to help the Car avoid hazards and reduce the driver’s workload when driving on Tedious, Boring, Stop-and-Go portions of a Commute or Road-Trip. While Model S or X can’t make traffic disappear, AutoPilot can make Driving a whole lot easier, safer, less tedious, and more pleasant to endure. Once you’ve arrived at your destination, Model S & X scans for a parking space and parallel parks on your command.

πŸ”˜ AutoPilot features a Dynamic real-time Instrument cluster with a Driver-Focused design showing current information the Car is utilizing to “intelligently” determine the vehicle’s behavior in the moment relative to its surrounding traffic conditions. The instrument panel provides a real-time computer-drawn “moving visuals” of the road, bending left, straightening, bending right, etc., the driving Lanes detected by the Car’s 360ΒΊ array of sensors. AutoPilot is delivering to the Driver the same information that the Car’s Computer is utilizing to execute center-of-the-Lane Stability, Lane Departure, Blind-Spot Detection, Speed Assist, Auto-Collision Maneuvering, Following distances, graphical Collision Warnings, Adaptive Cruise, and AutoSteer.

πŸ”˜ AutoSteer (presently in Beta form) maintains the Car Centered in the Current Lane, and engages Traffic-Aware Cruise Control to maintain the Car’s Speed. Using a variety of measures including Steering Angle, Steering Rate, and Speed to determine the appropriate operation; AutoSteer assists the Driver, making the driving experience easier.

πŸ”˜ Tesla’s AutoPilot requires Drivers to remain Engaged and Aware when Autosteer is enabled. Drivers must keep their Hands on the Steering Wheel, as there are Tactile Sensors imbedded in the the Steering Wheel, verifying the Driver’s “Hands on the Wheel.”

πŸ”˜ AutoPilot issues an Alarm and Disengages if the System doesn’t recognize the Driver’s hands on the steering wheel, AutoPilot will Display a Warning message, deliver a Chime, and auto-disengage AutoPilot. Since AutoSteer software is in “beta form” Tesla does not want their Drivers to “overly rely” on the AutoPilot’s traffic and road Predictions. As AutoPilot becomes “smarter” [perhaps with another 100 million miles of machine training] the Full-Time Hands-On-The-Wheel requirement may be relaxed [my guess].

πŸ”˜ Tesla Software release 7.1 expands AutoPilot functionality and introduces the 1st Iteration of the Summon feature. Using Summon… once you arrive home and you exit Model S or Model X, you may Stop your car at the Front Door, everyone exits the Car, and the Driver Prompts the Car to do the rest autonomously, namely
(A) The Car Opens Garage door
(B) The Car Drives into Garage
(C) The Car Parks itself
(D) The Car Closes Garage Door
(E) The Car Shuts itself down
(F) The Car Locks all 4 Doors
(β€’β€’) Imagine the convenience of Summoning your Car to your precise location, when it’s Raining, as it drives itself to the Front Door of the Restaurant, under the Portico awaiting you and your guests entry into the Car.

πŸ”˜ Using Summon again – In the morning, you wake up, get dressed, make coffee, Summon your Tesla with your iPhone App, Get your Cup of Coffee, Walk out the front door, and your car is at your Front Door waiting for you to Board the Car. The Car’s System will Open your Garage door, back-out of the Garage, Close the Garage Door, and Summon then drives itself to your location, ready for your Drive. More broadly, Summon eliminates the burden of having to squeeze in and out of tight parking spots. During the current 1st Beta stage of Summon, Tesla would prefer customers to become familiar with “Summon” only on private property.

πŸ”˜ “Autonomous Self-Valet-Parking” the Next Step for Summon feature. How nice, no more giving your keys to Strangers, as they celebrate “Joy-Riding in your very special car,” while you’re Dining. The Tesla Car will locate a viable Parking Spot and park itself, then lock itself, then turn itself OFF. When you are finished, Exit the Restaurant Summon your Car to your precise position. Tesla version 7.1 is in “beta” and cannot “Self Valet” yet…

πŸ”˜ According to Tesla, your Car will eventually be able to drive anywhere around the Corner, the City, the County, or perhaps further, to meet you, even self-charging along the way. Your Tesla Car will be able to Sync with your Calendar so your Car knows exactly where & when to arrive at your Home, Office, Country Club, or Hotel…

πŸ”˜ Tesla Computer Software v7.1 release is the Next Step towards Tesla’s Goal of developing fully Autonomous Driving capabilities with delivery through over-the-air software updates, keeping Tesla customers at the forefron of driving technology.

πŸ”˜ Tesla’s Auto-Steering is a strategically Important Component of AutoPilot’s capability, utilizing a 360ΒΊ Array of Sensors, and WiFi and 3G connectivity at all times
(A) Forward Facing Radar
(B) twelve Long-Range 360ΒΊ Ultra-Sonic Sonar Sensors
(C) High Definition Front-Facing Stereo Digital Camera
(D) High-Resolution GPS
(E) Tesla’s Ultra-High Definition Mapping, coupled
(F) Precision Electro-Mechanical Servo-Controled Steering, Breaking, Speed-Control Systems.

🚘 Let’s take a Pause and have some FUN – Congratulations, as you’ve read our article to this point. Now it’s time to take a brief break before moving to the next chapter. Check out this YouTube Video of Tesla’s Model S “Test” Driving with “Insane” Mode engaged:

πŸ”˜ AutoPilot Serves as the Driver’s Co-Pilot rendering Tesla Cars to Drive Safer. AutoPilot is Capable of
(1) Interpreting Stop Signs, Road Signs, and Speed Limit Signs using Optical and Object Character Recognition
(2) “Visualizing” Cars and Objects surrounding the Car
(3) Recognition and Compliance with Traffic Signals
(4) Identification of Road Lanes
(5) Auto-Lane Changing
(6) Auto-Steering, Centers the Car’s path within Lanes
(7) Maintains your SET Speed
(8) Maintains a Safe [selectable 1 to 7 Car lengths] Following Distance
(9) Car’s Sensor Array “Scans a full 360ΒΊ Perimeter” around the Car in Real-Time for Collision Avoidance and Blind-Spot Maneuvering… The Frontiers for AutoPiloting of Tesla Cars.

πŸ”˜ Tesla Cars with AutoPilot Software Installed and activated, AutoPilot’s features help to relieve Drivers from the most tedious and potentially dangerous aspects of road travel. Tesla combines a
(A) High-resolution Forward facing Camera
(C) Array of 12 Long-range Sonar Sensors
(D) GPS telemetry
(D) Ultra-high Definition Mapping [100-times more precise than typical GPS mapping], combined with electro-mechanical assists for braking and steering system to “automatically drive” your Model S on an Open Road and in dense Stop-and-Go Traffic.

πŸ”˜ AutoPilot hardware is now built into all Model S, X, and Model 3 Cars, whether or not you purchase the AutoPilot software Option. AutoPilot system is activated with the installation of the AutoPilot software tech-package into Tesla’s Car Computer system [ $2500 option] when configured at the time of Car Purchase, [$3000 if AutoPilot is installed after the purchase].

πŸ”˜ Tesla’s AutoPilot feature currently gives the Car partial-Autonomy, and when the AutoPilot Software is activated the “system” is 50% safer than Human Drivers, according to 50 million miles of Driving-Data assembled by Tesla’s Chief Executive Elon Musk’s software engineers. The probability of having an accident is 50% lower if you have Autopilot Engaged… said Musk, speaking at an energy conference in Oslo, Norway. Even with the current initial beta-versions, AutoPilot is about twice the Safety Record as compared to a Driver without AutoPilot assistance.

πŸ”˜ AutoPilot Warning: “Keep your Hands on the Wheel”. AutoPilot is currently in “beta form” and Tesla’s dashboard Warning Message states “Keep your hands on the steering wheel at all times, and be ready to take Control of the Car.” The AutoPilot system is continuously LEARNING. The “System Learns” when a Driver Corrects the Path of the Car, when necessary. All the corrective actions taken by the Driver are assembled with the digital data from Tesla’s onboard Computer, GPS, Radar, Sensors, and Camera, and Transmitted to Tesla’s Mother Ship for analysis and potential integration into the next AutoPilot update version.

πŸ”˜ 50 Million Miles of Driving Data has been Collected in 6 Months. This Data is “Training the AutoPilot” as it formulates improved Driving Algorithms for the Software. Tesla’s entire Fleet of Cars with AutoPilot engaged, are collecting Driving-Data, the actions of the Driver, as compared to the actions the AutoPilot predicted. If differences occur, where the Driver took over control of the AutoPilot, this is a potential “Training Event” that is transmitted to “Tesla’s Mother Ship” for assessment and assimilation. As improved Driving Algorithms are developed, Software updates are delivered by the Cell System back to the entire Fleet of Tesla Cars. Tesla’s “Learning Machine” is a continuous Cycle of data Collection, Assimilation, Assessment, Integration, Update the Fleet, with a continuous streaming of Millions of Miles of Precision Driving.

πŸ”˜ Drawing on Early Data from Tesla’s cars, Musk said that the average number of Miles Driven by a Car Between Accidents was almost doubled when Autopilot was engaged. These results are from Tesla’s first generation of Autopilot, which owners have been using. Tesla drivers using AutoPilot, have driven over 50 Million Miles since AutoPilot was launched October, 2015.

πŸ”˜ Tesla AutoPilot software obtains data from HD Video Cameras, Radar, a 360ΒΊ Array of 12 Long Range Ultrasonic Sensors to perform basic functions, including steering on a Highways, Lane Changing, adjusting Speed in response to varying traffic conditions, or simply parking the Car. AutoPilot technology (the hardware component of the AutoPilot) is pre-built into every recent Model of the company’s Cars, from July, 2015 and all 2016 Cars. The Software package is designed to “Continuously Learn how to Drive Better” and therefor AutoPilot will continue improve with time.

πŸ”˜ Musk expects the 2nd Version of AutoPilot, a Fully Autonomous AutoPilot version of its Driving Software will be Significantly Safer than the current AutoPilot technology. Less than 2 years away from being released, the 2nd Generation of Tesla’s Autopilot will require regulatory approval; Tesla must Demonstrate to the DOT that AutoPilot is (A) relatively Simple for average Drivers to implement, and (B) is “Definitively” Safer as compared to all Human Drivers, not having engaged AutoPilot.

πŸ”˜ The Insurance Industry is Extremely Interested in the continued Success of Tesla’s AutoPilot. AutoPilot improves the Driver’s experience
(1) Driving Safety, averts boredom and tedium
(2) Collision Avoidance, with 360ΒΊ sensor Array
(3) Decrease the number of driving accidents
(4) Decreasing the Degree of personal injury
(5) Decrease property damages
(*) The day may come, when motor vehicles may be required to have a minimum level of hardware-sensors with AutoPiloting assistance for Drivers. It seems that Tesla is setting the Standards for AutoPiloting driver-assistance.

πŸ”˜ Tesla is Collecting a Huge DataBase of high-resolution Driving-Data to demonstrate “that the Safety Level is significantly Improved, by a meaningful margin, when AutoPilot Autonomous Mode is Engaged, versus AutoPilot with Autonomous mode turned off.”

πŸ”˜ AutoPilot enabled Tesla Cars are Safer than Human Drivers… or is this a high-tech Marketing Gimmick? A video surfaced in early April, 2016 that showed a Tesla Model S Autopilot prevented a Highway Collision with a Utility Truck (positioned in the Driver’s “Blind Spot”) that cut sharply in front of the Model S. The Model S was riding on a highway in the Right Lane; a White Utility Truck aggressively moved from the Center-Lane to Right-Lane (as the Tesla Car was positioned in the Truck’s “Blind Spot”); This Event, both vehicles becoming dangerously Close, was detected by AutoPilot’s perimeter Sensor Array, and caused the Model S to instantly “Auto-Steer” the Tesla Car enough distance to the Right, combined with “Auto-Speed” control, to avoid the Truck’s contact with the Tesla Car.

πŸ”˜ The iPhone Video of the above potential “Event” shows the Model S collision avoidance system “sensed” a vehicle moving to an unsafe distance, and triggered a corrective action by its Auto-Steering to the Right, to avoid the Utility Truck, as it pulled out in front of the Model S. Coincidentally, the Model S occupant was cell-phone video-recording their new Model S on the Highway having engaged the AutoPilot, and shortly thereafter, the Truck near-collision incident occurred. Video Clip:

πŸ”˜ How Does Tesla’s AutoPilot Work – Model S AutoPilot’s system is Continuously Learning and Improving, due to the procedure of (A) Machine Learning computer algorithms, (B) the car’s wireless [cellular] real-time, always-on connection, (C) ultra-high-resolution mapping (D) sensor-array data that each Tesla Car collects, (D) Driver Data and AutoPilot’s Predictions are Transmitted to “Tesla’s Mother Ship” for Processing and Assimilation into the next version of AutoPilot. Within the recent 6 months, more than 50 Million Miles of Driving Data has been processed by Tesla for improvements to its AutoPilot software system.

πŸ”˜ Machine Learning Algorithms, the latest in sophisticated computer technology, where computers Assimilate super-large Data-sets, Analysis of massive levels of Data, Elimination of Spurious Data, Create improved Precision Algorithms, then implement the Algorithms, making for Improved Precision high-confidence Predictions.

πŸ”˜ Computers delivering Precision high-confidence Predictions is the essence of Machine Learning, resulting in computer-speed “Micro-Second Reaction Time” form of highly specialized artificial intelligence. With Human intelligence, improved performance, is accomplished with Education, Training, Practice. With Computers, Learning occurs with Millions of Cycles of Assimilating massive Data Sets into Precision Algorithms, Elimination of the spurious Data, delivering super-high-confidence Predictions;then rewrite Precision Algorithms, Distribute back to the Fleet of Cars, in the case of AutoPilot. And these Cycles are repeated creating even more precision-high-Confidance Predictions.

πŸ”˜ AutoPilot Machine Learning is the method that Tesla Car Computers can become artificially intelligent, as the AutoPilot technology is a form of AI. β€œThe entire Tesla fleet of Cars operates as a large network of “Tesla Car Computers” collecting very-high-resolution digital data. When one Tesla Car learns something, the entire Fleet learn it. “This is far beyond what other car companies are doing” says Elon Musk.

πŸ”˜ When it comes to the AutoPilot software, Musk explained that each driver using the AutoPilot System essentially becomes an “Expert Trainer” for how the AutoPilot should work. To create a self-driving car, Tesla’s AutoPilot, has logged and transmitted back to Tesla Mainframes, over 50 million miles of driving Videos and Data into Tesla’s Computer Data Model, which creates a Massive digital vocabulary about driving events. The resultant algorithms use “visual” techniques to Assimilate the video-data to understand traffic and driver events. The Goal for AutoPilot, when something unexpected happens β€” a ball rolls into the street β€” AutoPilot can recognize the specific pattern, and will react accordingly (because a child may also be running into the street after the ball, as an example).

πŸ”˜ The Data from Tesla Drivers is enabled by the hardware systems that Tesla has configured. All Tesla Cars built from mid-2015 through 2016, have (A) 12 ultrasonic sensors located on the lower circumference of the vehicle, (B) a front-facing digital camera mounted above the rear-view mirror, (C) a Radar System center-mounted below the front-nosecone. These three sensing systems are constantly collecting high-resolution Data to help the AutoPilot work on the roads, but this System also amasses Data that will make Tesla AutoPilot systems Learn, and operate with more precision in the future.

πŸ”˜ Because each of Tesla’s Cars have an always-on wireless Cellular connection to “Tesla’s Mother Ship,” data from driving and using AutoPilot is collected and uploaded into the Tesla Cloud, and analyzed with sophisticated software algorithms. With AutoPilot, Tesla assimilates the data from Tesla Cars using the its Automated Steering and Lane Change Systems, uses this Data to train its AutoPilot algorithms. Tesla then assembles these algorithms, tests them, and incorporates the new Driving Algorithms into upcoming software downloads to the entire fleet of Tesla Cars’ onboard Computers.

πŸ”˜ Currently Tesla has downloading Version 7.1 software. This download is multi-hour events that occurs between 2am and 4am, or as Drivers schedule. Elon Musk said that Tesla is collecting much more detailed high-precision mapping data for its automated steering and lane change applications as compared to what is available through the standard navigation technology. To meet its needs, Tesla has started to build its own Ultra-high-precision Mapping Data that is 100-Times the level of granularity, compared to standard commercially available navigation systems, using [mostly] data from Tesla Cars driving on roads and data from Tesla engineers driving research cars.

πŸ”˜ AUTOSTEER & AUTO LANE CHANGE – Autopilot displays a “Steering Wheel Icon located next to the speed display in the instrument cluster will appear Grey. Pull the Cruise Control lever towards you Once to engage the Traffic-Aware Cruise Control, and pull it Twice to activate AutoSteer. The steering wheel icon will now turn from Gray to Blue. AutoSteer keeps the vehicle in the current lane [the driving Lanes are illuminated with Blue Lines] and maintains the vehicle’s speed. However, you must still keep your hands on the steering wheel so you are prepared to take control of the vehicle at any moment during changing road and traffic conditions.

πŸ”˜ When AutoSteer is activated, you can change lanes by engaging the turn signal, and your Model S will move itself to the adjacent lane, only when it’s safe to do so. AutoPilot’s 360ΒΊ perimeter sonar sensors detect when it’s clear for a Lane Change.

πŸ”˜ AUTOPARK – When traveling below 15mph, a Grey “P” will appear on the instrument cluster when your Model S detects a parking spot next to you. Put the vehicle into reverse and β€œAutoPark Ready” will appear on the touchscreen. Once activated, your Model S will begin to park itself by controlling steering and vehicle speed.

πŸ”˜ Tesla Model S Driver Joshua Brown said “It was a mistake on the Truck driver’s part. He did not look or know I was next to him, until I honked my horn” Joshua Brown, recently uploaded the video to YouTube:

Model S demonstration of Acceleration and AutoPilot: Elon Musk demonstrating Dual Motor Acceleration and AutoPilot: Demonstration of AutoPilot software version 7: and

πŸ”˜ Model S Equipped with Driver Assistance components and Autopilot Tech Package, the Forward looking Camera and the Radar sensor are designed to determine when there is a vehicle in front of you in the same lane. If the area in front of Model S is clear, Traffic-Aware Cruise Control maintains a SET driving speed. When a vehicle is detected, Traffic-Aware Cruise Control is designed to slow down Model S as needed to maintain a selected distance from the vehicle in front, up to the set speed. Traffic-Aware Cruise Control does not eliminate the need to watch the road in front of you and to apply the brakes when needed. Traffic-Aware Cruise Control is primarily intended for driving on dry, relatively straight roads, such as highways and freeways. It should not be used on city streets.

πŸ”˜ Traffic-Aware Cruise Control is designed for Driving Comfort and Convenience, and is not currently “promoting” AutoPilot as a Collision Warning or Avoidance System [although there are numerous YouTube examples of Collision Avoidance by AutoPilot]. Since Auto-Steering” is currently in “Beta form” It is the Driver’s responsibility to stay alert, drive safely, and be in control of the vehicle at all times. Never depend on Traffic-Aware Cruise Control to adequately slow down Model S. Always watch the road in front of you and be prepared to take corrective action at all times. Failure to do so can result in serious injury or death. The instrument panel displays a gray speedometer icon on the left side of the driving speed to indicate that Traffic-Aware Cruise Control is available but the cruising speed has not been set. Unless a vehicle is detected ahead of you, you must be driving at least 18 mph to use Traffic-Aware Cruise Control. If a vehicle is detected ahead of you, you can use Traffic-Aware Cruise Control at any speed, even when stationary. When driving at your desired speed, set the cruising speed by moving the cruise-control lever up or down (or pulling it briefly toward you), then releasing.

πŸ”˜ The speedometer icon on the instrument panel turns blue and displays the set speed to indicate that Traffic-Aware Cruise Control is actively maintaining the set speed. The Driver may now release-pressure from the accelerator pedal and allow Traffic-Aware Cruise Control to maintain your set speed. When no vehicle is detected ahead, Traffic-Aware Cruise Control maintains the set speed. If a vehicle is detected, Traffic-Aware Cruise Control maintains your chosen following distance, [user-selectable from 1 to 7 Car lengths] up to the set speed, accelerating and decelerating Model S as needed. When the vehicle you are following is no longer detected, Traffic-Aware Cruise Control accelerates to the set speed. Traffic-Aware Cruise Control also adjusts the speed as appropriate when entering and exiting curves.

πŸ”˜ Adjust your following distance – To adjust the distance you want to maintain between Model S and a vehicle traveling ahead of you, rotate the cruise control lever to choose a setting from 1 (the closest following distance) to 7 (the longest following distance). Each setting corresponds to a time-based distance that represents how long it takes for Model S, from its current location, to reach the location of the rear bumper of the vehicle ahead. Cruising at the Speed Limit – Traffic-Aware Cruise Control makes it easy to cruise at the speed limit. Once you’ve initially set a cruising speed, you can adjust the speed to cruise at the speed limit that is currently being determined by Speed Assist. To do so, pull the cruise control lever toward you and hold momentarily (about half a second). When you release, your cruising speed is set to the speed that is automatically or manually being determined by Speed Assist, taking into consideration any setting you have specified. If you are already driving faster than the speed limit when you pull and momentarily hold the lever, the set speed does not adjust to the speed limit, it adjusts to your current driving speed.

πŸ”˜ To increase/decrease speed by 1 mph, move the lever up or down to the first position and release. To increase/decrease speed to the closest 5 mph increment, move the lever up/down to the second position and release. For example, if you are traveling at 57 mph and you move the lever up to the second position and release, the speed increases to 60 mph. You can also increase/decrease speed by holding the lever in the full up/down position and releasing when the desired speed displays below the cruise control icon. To cruise at the speed limit that is currently being determined by Speed Assist (including any o sets that you have set), pull the cruise control lever toward you and hold momentarily (about half a second). It may take a few seconds for Model S to reach the new cruising speed. The Maximum Set Speed is 90 mph.

πŸ”˜ AutoSteer is a BETA feature in Release 7.1. Model S is equipped with Driver Assistance components and the optional Autopilot Tech Package; you can use Autosteer to manage steering and speed under certain circumstances. Autosteer builds upon Traffic-Aware Cruise Control, intelligently keeping Model S in its driving lane when cruising at a set speed. Using the forward looking camera, the radar sensor, and the ultrasonic sensors, Autosteer detects lane markings and the presence of vehicles and objects, steering Model S based on the lane markings and the vehicle directly in front of you.

πŸ”˜ AutoSteer is a hands-on feature. You must keep your hands on the steering wheel at all times. Autosteer is intended for use only on highways and limited-access roads with a fully attentive driver. When using Autosteer, hold the steering wheel and be mindful of road conditions and surrounding traiffc. Do not use Autosteer on city streets or in areas where bicyclists or pedestrians may be present. Never depend on Autosteer to determine an appropriate driving path. Always be prepared to take immediate action. Failure to follow these instructions could cause serious property damage, injury or death.

πŸ”˜ Enable AutoSteer – the Driver must enable it by touching Controls > Settings > Driver Assistance > Autosteer > Enable. To indicate that Autosteer is available (but not actively steering Model S), the instrument panel displays a gray Autosteer icon on the right side of the driving speed as shown here.

πŸ”˜ To initiate Autosteer, pull the cruise control lever toward you twice in quick succession. Autosteer briefly displays a message on the instrument panel reminding you to pay attention to the road and be ready to take over at any time. To indicate that Autosteer is now actively steering Model S, the instrument panel displays the Autosteer icon in blue. When Autosteer is able to detect lane markings, it also displays the driving lanes in BLUE:

πŸ”˜ To Initiate Autosteer, you must be driving at least 18 mph on a roadway with visible lane markings. If a vehicle is detected ahead of you, you can initiate Autosteer at any speed, even when stationary. In most cases, Autosteer attempts to center Model S in the driving lane. However, if the sensors detect the presence an obstacle (such as a vehicle or guard rail), Autosteer may steer Model S in a driving path that is offset from the center of the lane. In situations where you attempt to engage Autosteer but you are not driving within the required driving speed for Autosteer to operate, or Autosteer is not receiving adequate data from the camera or sensors, a message displays on the instrument panel indicating that Autosteer is temporarily unavailable.

πŸ”˜ Hold Steering Wheel – AutoSteer uses data from the camera, sensors, and GPS system to determine where to drive. It also requires you to hold the steering wheel. When entering a curve or driving at a high speed, if Autosteer does not detect your hands on the steering wheel, it displays the following message on the instrument panel and eventually sounds a chime: When you see this message, you may need to tighten your grip on the steering wheel. When your hands are detected, Autosteer resumes normal operation. Be careful not to apply any steering. Doing so cancels Autosteer. If Autosteer does not detect your hands on the steering wheel, the Hold Steering Wheel request escalates by sounding two additional chimes. The chimes increase in frequency until Autosteer detects your hands. If no action is taken, Autosteer begins to decelerate Model S and displays the following message on the instrument panel.

πŸ”˜ Take Over Immediately – In situations where AutoSteer is unable to steer Model S, AutoSteer sounds a warning chime and displays the following message on the instrument panel.

πŸ”˜ Tesla Model S Owners Manual. The Link below directs you to Dropbox that houses a PDF file containing the Model S Operation Manual provided to new Car owners. The sections above are abstracts from “Driver Assistance” section that begins on page 65 of this manual.

πŸ”˜ Fuel Economy.Gov site to compare a wide variety of New Cars.

πŸ”˜ TESLA’s Model S, first arrived on the market 4 years ago in June, 2012, when the first Model S rolled off the production line. Four years later on May 1, 2016 the New and Improved Model S Cars are rolling off the production line at a pace of 1000 Cars/Week. The most noticeable change is with the front “Nose Grill” area, the nose-cone.

πŸ”˜ Cosmetics was the primary reason Tesla used a “Front Grill-like” feature in its initial design of the Model S. The nose-grill is non-functional, and was chosen to retain the “look” of traditional Cars. Since there’s no gasoline-combustion engine, and therefor no heat created, and no radiator to dissipate the heat that doesn’t exist… a front Grill to admit air for a radiator is not the function; the front Grill is strictly cosmetic.

πŸ”˜ TESLA’s Mission is to Deliver an Electric Car that “looks like” what everyone expects a Car to look like; and to have their Electric Car perform, as everyone expects a “traditional car to perform”… even though it’s Electric.

πŸ”˜ The Model S concepts are driving forces since 2010, and presently remain a major focus for TESLA. Tesla’s ultimate goal is to deliver affordable Electric Cars for the Mainstream, the Model 3 being Tesla’s first entry into the affordable car for the masses category.

πŸ”˜ TESLA’s all Electric Roadster and Model S proved that an Electric Car can be aesthetically attractive with superior performance. The Model S nose-Grill does not pass ambient-air through, to an Air-Over-Radiator as with Gasoline Engine powered cars. TESLA’s nose-Grill design was strictly cosmetic, as folks expected to see a Grill.

πŸ”˜ Currently, 80,000 Model S Cars have been purchased in the US, for a total of 110,000 Model S deliveries globally. Tesla believes with over $10 Billion in Sales Deliveries of their electric Cars, the non-functional cosmetic grill, may now be replaced with an aerodynamically efficient nosecone. The new “nose” design is currently used in Model X cars, and is planned for Model 3 cars, starting production in late 2017.

πŸ”˜ The Nose-Grill displayed in the May, 2016 Model S is Aerodynamically Superior, to the 2012 Grill, due to its carefully engineering, wind-tunnel tested shape; The 2012 nose-grill was non-functional, with unfavorable aerodynamics; but it was “worth it” to have their electric Cars accepted by the Market, in the face of decades of “Traditional Cars.” Model S new nosecone is the same precision-design wind-tunnel tested nosecone, used for Model X and Model 3.

πŸ”˜ Model 3 Received 400,000 Reservation Deposit Checks, talk about Market Acceptance. The Model 3 is Tesla’s new, affordable $35,000 electric car, with over 400k reservations with $1000 deposits.

πŸ”˜ Imagine this, Tesla has received $400,000,000 in Cash deposits for Model 3, with customers hoping to receive the Model 3, ASAP; however no sooner than “Late, 2017” according to Tesla Motors.

πŸ”˜ The Model S facelift brings TESLA’s design “up to speed” aerodynamically, with the Model X and the upcoming Model 3 sedan. The revised front-fascia swaps-out the large faux-grille, in favor of a thin top-strip across the front with a centered bold T Logo. Changing the nose-cone on the Model S is aerodynamically-functional, having significantly reduced the “Wind Resistance” of the Car, thereby increased the overall Milage Range by more than 10%.

πŸ”˜ The Improved Model S has been fitted with New Head Lights that are powered with high-power LEDs, including 14 three-position dynamic turning lights to improve visibility with evening turns and winding roads.

πŸ”˜ Tesla Engineers have added a new HEPA air filtration system, removing 99.97% of all particulate exhaust pollution, allergens, bacteria, and other airborne contaminants. Like the Model X, this Air Filtration system features a “Bioweapon Defense Mode” that maintains positive pressure inside the cabin, to prevent toxic gasses from entering the Car’s cabin.

πŸ”˜ Tesla Designers have added several cosmetic improvements in the Cabin, adding a few new wood trim options. Buyers can also select an Option for heating or cooling Forced-Air ventilation of the front seats, a similar HVAC system employed in Tesla’s Model X. For example, on a Hot Afternoon in South Florida, the interior seating becomes very hot, upwards of 150ΒΊF.

πŸ”˜ Tesla offers an AirConditioned Front Seats Option, that delivers Cool, Dry, Forced-Air Circulation inside the perforated seat-cushions, creating a cool, dry seat, rather than a scorching hot seat, particularly if you fit the Car with Black Leather. Seat-cushion air circulation is very comfortable at all times. However, particularly comfortable during long commutes and road-trips.

πŸ”˜ Tesla’s iPhone APP – when launched your iPhone becomes a Remote Control for your Model S Car. Using the App you can start the Car’s Air Conditioning System, while you are finishing getting dressed in the morning, or awaiting your arrival from your Meeting, Luncheon, or Shopping. From your iPhone or Apple Watch, you are able to see the internal temperature of the Car, verify that it’s properly Locked, check your Fuel Range, and Turn-On the Air Conditioning, preparing the Car for your arrival to it.

πŸ”˜ Model S will likely be paired with a 120 kWh High-Capacity LiON Battery delivering a Range of 400 Miles that will eventually replace the battery pack presently offered. We previously reported that Tesla and Panasonic have designed a slightly larger LiON battery cell [2mm bigger in diameter, 5mm taller] that delivers 33% greater Power with no increase in the cost to product the Lion cells. Implementation of this new LiON 20700 cell may be the effect of assembling a 120 kWh LiON battery pack. Presently Customers have the choice of TESLA’s 70 kWh LiOn battery pack, and the 90 kWh LiON Battery pack, paired with either a single-rear-motor, 2-Wheel Drive system, or paired with Front-Wheel motor plus Rear-Wheel motor, for their AWD package.

πŸ”˜ Folks require more than a 300 mile range in an Electric Car. Tesla need to deliver a 400 Mile Range Battery pack, principally because at current Charging Rates, a 5-Minute “electric” Fill-Up delivers 28 Miles Range added to the LiON Battery, at Best. We understand that Tesla SuperCharger Stations will increase to a Power of 150 kWh [from 120 kWh]. This 25% increase that may deliver 35 Miles per 5 Minute charge, or 100 Mile Range in 15 Minutes, or over 200 Mile Range in 30 minutes.

πŸ”˜ There are 168,000 Gas Stations, and 40,000 Electric Fueling Spots in the US. Electric Car drivers need and want greater Range per Full Charge, per Fill-up. Recall, When a Gasoline Engine powered Car pulls into a Gas Station, within 5-Minutes, they receive 15 Gallons of Gas, which provides 330 Miles of range, as established by the EPA standards of 22MPG, with a 15 gallon fuel-tank.

πŸ”˜ Tesla needs a 120 kWh 400 Mile Range LiON Battery for the Model S, X, and Model 3 Cars. A 120 kWh Battery’s 400 mile Range, in traditional Gas-Tank equivalency, of an 18.2 Gallon Gas Tank, in a car that achieves 22MPG. Hopefully the Chargers and Battery Chemistry, will permit more Power to enter the LiOn Battery in Less Time.

πŸ”˜ For Electric Car Fill-ups, a 5-Minute Electric Fill-up, an Electric Car receives only 28 Miles of Range, at any of the 630 Tesla SuperCharger Stations, the most powerful [120 kWh chargers] in the US. The 2nd best Electric Charger “in the wild” delivers 16 mile Range for a 5 minute charge, and there are not too many of these ChargePoint 200 RPH chargers. The Model S onboard charging system has been upgraded to accept 48 Amp Service, a 20% increase over the previous specs.

πŸ”˜ Space X Mission Successfully Lands CRS-8 First Stage Rocket on a Drone-Ship situated in the Atlantic Ocean, April, 2016.

πŸ”˜ SPACE X Mission April 8, 2016, 30 minute narrated clip behind the line showing the Mission, an the background stories. Well worth your time. As you are watching this clip, as the 1st stage Rocket Lands on the Drone-Ship, floating out there, in the Atlantic Ocean, you’ll be standing and cheering with everyone else…

🚘 Compare Tesla Model S and Model X all Electric Cars. From a Non-Car-Guy point of view, we discuss in reasonable detail [not-too-technical] a few of the commonly used electric-car terms; We need to think and understand this new “language.”

🚘 Tesla Cars Viewed from a Buyer Perspective, selecting the Options for the Model S or Model X makes significant changes to the Comfort and Safety of the Driver & Passengers, plus the Car’s Agility, Power, and Performance. In this article we Compare two highly rated Tesla electric Cars.

🚘 Permit me to bring you “up to speed” on some of the ingredients that make the Tesla Electric Cars “tick.” Remember, it’s All about the Cells, LiON Cells. Thousands of Cells in all Model X and Model S Cars.

🚘 Look at this Single Lithium-Ion Cell in hand. The LiON Cell is truly the Magical Ingredient that energizes Tesla Model S and Model X Cars. Thousands of these Cells [literally 7,104 Cells] all lined up in a special arrangement, with 444 cells housed in each Module, where all 16 modules are connected together to deliver 400v DC at 225 Amps, yielding a 90 kWh Battery weighing 1,200 pounds.

🚘 Tesla’s GigaFactory, 100 Electric Ave, Sparks, Nevada. Tesla’s Lithium-Ion Battery factory [over 3 million sq.ft, on 1.5 sq. miles land] will produce more Lithium Cells than the entire World’s 2015 production. The Gigafactory’s initial production capacity is targeted at 35 Million kWh per Year, enough Lithium Cells to power 400,000 Tesla Cars/yr, [that’s 2.75 Billion Cells, LiON Cells/year or 7.64 Million Cells/day].

🚘 Tesla’s new GigaFactory is an 80 Acre Building Under Roof. Tesla’s battery partner [Panasonic] will be manufacturing their new co-designed LiOn Cell [the 20700 Cell] rendering it +133% more powerful. When Tesla’s Production Line [for Model X, Model S, Model 3 Cars] delivers 12,000 Cars per month, Tesla’s Gigafactory will be Producing 2.8 Million LiON Cells every Day, for the Car’s Batteries; This is just the “startup” quantity before Tesla Ramps-Up production [add the Model 3 Car in 2018] in Tesla’s new 3.5 million sq.ft. facility, the first phase of 10 Million sq.ft.

🚘 It’s Really All about the LiON Cells. Look at the picture of the 18650 Lithium-Ion Cell standing upright next to a traditional Double-AA battery on my iPad Pro’s keyboard. The LiON Cell [39gm] is over twice the physical size and weight of the AA battery [16gm]. Notice 5000 mAh capacity, equals 5.0 Ah at 3.7v DC. [Watts = A x V] or 5×3.7 = 18.5 Watt/Hr. Let’s divide it by 1000, to convert 18.5 Watts into kiloWatts. 18.5/1000 = 0.0185 kWh.

🚘 We Converted 18.5 Watts of storage into kWh [0.0185 kWh] the same units as in the 90 kWh Battery Pack. We know there are 7,104 LiON Cells in TESLA’s battery pack. Each individual LiON Cell can store 0.0185 kWh of power… seems like an itty-bitty amount of Power.

🚘 Cells are TESLA’s MAGIC. All these LiOn Cells are like a Miniature “Army” of Cells. A single “Army-Man’s” power, may not be impressive, with only 0.0184 kWh of muscle; BUT, let’s multiply our Army-Man, and bring in 7104 Army-Men; Now we have several Brigades, a “Powerful Force” of 7104 Men… 7104 Cells… Therefor, let’s take the single Cell’s modest Power of 0.0185 kWh, times 7,104. [0.0185 x 7104 = 131.4 kWh]

🚘 This is a Storage Pack with 131.4 kWh Power. OMG, that’s Huge. If these LiON Cells were all lined up in Tesla’s special arrangement for their TESLA Battery Pack, they’d have an amazing 130 kWh Battery, that’s 144% greater capacity than their present 90 kWh Battery, which would likely be an EPA rating of 400 Miles Range, rather than 275 EPA miles, for the present day 90 kWh Battery. See how much fun we’re having…

🚘 After All, it’s really all about the Cells, currently the 18650 LiOn Cell, is 18mm in diameter by 65mm tall. Battery Engineers say by increasing the Cell’s Diameter marginally by 2mm to 20mm, and increasing the cell’s Height from 65mm to 70mm, the new Cell, the LiON 20700 Cell will actually deliver 133% of the Power than its smaller brother, at the Same Cost per Cell.

🚘 Delivery of the 20700 LiON Cell may be the “Birth” of Tesla’s new 120 kWh Battery, with a Range over 400 Miles. This is a Huge development. Personally, having over 350 EPA certified miles is the Range folks need to see. Anything significantly less in Range [in my opinion] would be considered a “Commuter Car.”

🚘 Today is Racing in Fast Forward to the Future, as Electric Cars Charge on to the Mainstream However, too many folks remain pulled back with decades of prejudices and familiarity: “Pistons, Tanks, Gas, Rods, Gallons, Liters, Fumes, Plugs, V8’s, Octane, Unleaded…” Today, Electric Cars are becoming more popular partly because of the “GREEN” effect, plus some folks see Fuel Cost savings beneficial in the longer view.

🚘 Gas Prices at $2.75/Gallon currently, Equals 12’/Mile, [assume the EPA 22 MPG] the cost the average Gas Guzzler is about 12’/Mile. This fuel cost/mile is Three Times the cost of the Tesla Models S or X, electric utility charge of 4’/Mile. [electricity cost 12’/kW]

🚘 It takes Courage to be GREEN with Cars. One must have lots of Courage to be an “Electric Car Pioneer” knowing that: (A) Electric Car manufacturers do not have decades of experiences or durability stats, (B) Electric Charger-Stations are “few and far between” literally, (C) the Time required for an electric Fill-Up.

🚘 Gas Staton Fill-Ups: For an EPA standard 15 gallon Fill-Up, traditional Gas Stations [currently there are 168,000 US Gas Stations] that require about 5-Minutes in Fueling Time, giving your car 330 miles of Range, with an EPA standard of 22MPG, renders a cost of 12’/Mile, at $2.65/Gallon. With Electric-Car charging at most of the 40,000 charging-stations that currently exist in the US, the same 5-Minutes Fueling Time, gives your Electric Car 2.5 miles of Range. At DC FAST Express Commercial and Public Charging (19.2 kWr) Stations, a 5 minute charge gives your electric Car about 5 miles of Range. Fortunately, many EV Car Drivers have a Charger Connection at their residence garage, for every night fill-ups.

🚘 Your Garage becomes your Fuel Service Station, as you can Plug-In your Tesla using a 19.2 kWh Super Charger Kit, for an Over Night Fill Up, every Night. Although, the charging rate is roughly 60 RPH, [60 miles of Range per Hour of Charging], If you have a 360 Mile Battery, plugging in overnight, in 6 hours you are FULL of electric power. Although, the Public Charging Stations are time consuming for even a modest fill-up, your Garage Charger is very convenient for an every-Night topping-off your “Electric Fuel Tank.”

🚘 For Electric Cars to become truly Mainstream, These Issues Must be resolved

(A) Battery Range of 350 Miles
– Affordable Battery Technology, to render energy storage at a reasonable cost, giving 350+ Miles Range. With a bazillion Gas Stations in the US, [actually 168,000] gas driven cars receive a 330 mile range with a 5-minute Fill-Up time
(B) Range per 5 Minute Fill-Up. Charging Stations will have to Deliver significantly more Range than 5 Miles with a 5 Minute Charge
(C) DC-FAST chargers by ChargePoint are currently the fastest commercial chargers giving a Rate of 200 RPH which equals 15 Miles Range for a 5 Minute charge using the CHAdeMO plug.

🚘 TESLA is getting FASTER with Charging Speed, as their Super-Charger Stations Deliver a 30 mile Range in 5-minutes, 115 Miles of Range in 20 Minutes, or 170 Miles in 30 Minutes, Electric Charging gives 5 Miles of Range per Minute … This charging-rate although FAST for electric charging points, is still relatively slow, compared to the Time folks are used to at Gas Stations, giving 60 miles of Range per Minute. Tesla’s Super-Charger Stations are proprietary for Tesla Cars Only, as Tesla is providing its Power at No Cost to Tesla Drivers.

πŸ”΄ Below are YouTube Video-Clips Links that you may be interested in viewing. Having reviewed dozens of videos, these have been picked, showing (A) A Video, narrated, takes you into the assembly-line of the Model S at their factory in Fremont, California (B) Tesla associate Delivering a Tesla Model S to a customer; taking a new Tesla owner through the setup of the features for the Model S. TESLA’s delivery-training is worth your time (C) the next 2 video-clips demonstrate the Tesla AutoPilot in action on freeways, first with the Model X, the second is with the Model S car.

πŸ”΅ These Clips have been placed between two distinctive images, so you can return here, at a later time, after you’ve read the article.

πŸ”΄ Tesla Factory is Automated with Robotics; this interesting, narrated YouTube video-clip gives a closeup view of the assembly of some key components such as the unique Tesla Motor, Gear Box, and Dashboard electronics:

πŸ”΄ Tesla Factory Delivery of Your New Model S All Tesla Cars are build-to-order. In a few weeks you car will be ready for delivery to you. This YouTube narrated video-clip shows a Tesla Delivery to a Customer:

πŸ”΄ Tesla Drivers demonstrate the Model X and the Model S AutoPilot with Software version 7.0 These narrated demonstrations of the Autopilot shows the hands-free operation of the Tesla Autopilot controlling the car on Expressways at 70+mph, quite amazing:

πŸ”΄ A Tesla Driver demonstrates the Apple Watch monitoring the status of the Model S and some of the Controlling capability of the Model-S Car.

🚘 Tesla provides a Free APP for iPhones and Apple Watch where Drivers may Plug-In at the Charging station, Start the Charge cycle, Lock the Car, then go into a Coffee shop or Retail Center. Then Remotely, Drivers can Open the Tesla APP on your iPhone and on your Apple Watch, which Logs-In to your Tesla Car’s Computer, to do lots of tasks
(A) Look at the Status of your Car: Locked, Unlocked, Interior Temperature, Range in Miles
(B) You can Honk your Horn, Flash the Car’s Lights to help you find the car in a large parking lot, or a dark street, Start the A/C system to Cool-Down your Car, so it’s ready for you at a Comfortable temperature, or heat the car in the Winter season
(C) Look at the Charging-progress of your Car, see the Miles Range as your Battery is charging, you’d then know when it’s time to return to your Tesla Car
(D) All of these actions can be performed from your iPhone and your Apple Watch.

🚘 Tesla Promises Free Super-Charges Forever. Free charging as assured by Elon Musk helps to mitigate the limited Network of Stations, and the relatively slow Charge-time [compared to Gas-Fill-Ups]. Tesla’s SuperCharger Stations are Super-Fast [compared to all other Commercial and Public charger stations] but are relatively slow compared to Gasoline Car fill-ups. Hopefully new Battery technologies will permit significantly Faster Charge Times. It is believed that LiON Battery technology is one of the major factors limiting Charge-Time.

🚘 Tesla SuperCharger stations require 20-30 Minutes to obtain a reasonable 100-175 Mile Range added to their Battery “Fuel Tanks.” To mitigate this “time issue” Tesla locates their Stations near Destinations where the Driver may be encouraged to visit, like Coffee Shops, Malls, Retail Shopping Centers.

🚘 Good News: The Public, Federal & State Governments, and Technology Enterprises are Focusing on GREEN Personal Transportation Solutions. For Traditional Cars: We need to arrest (an increasing portion of) the Toxic-Fumes spewing into the atmosphere, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are an answer; The EV Revolution has many of us digesting a new vocabulary: Lithium Ion batteries, Cells, 90 kWh, 70 kWh, LiON Cells, is Bigger Better, How Big is enough, Charger-Stations, Amps, Watts, Volts, Bolts, AC, DC not CD, RPH not MPH… EV’s have NO sign of Toxic Fumes, there’s no Gas-burning, nor tail-pipe Exhaust…

🚘 Compare Model X & Model S: Reviewing Tesla’s web site is a good experience; the web-site is well designed and full of attractive, informative dialogs and graphics. Our effort, is to provide the back-story, analysis, and related information on the topic of Electric Cars, from the point of view of a “Non-CAR-Guy.” After all, we want to know more about electric cars; we need to know What’s Watt.

🚘 Model S – Performance and Safety Refined – Model S is designed from the ground up to be the safest, most exhilarating sedan on the road; Having driven the Model S recently, Exhilarating is an Understatement. With unparalleled performance delivered through Tesla’s unique, all-electric powertrain, Model S accelerates from 0 to 60 mph in as little as 2.8 seconds with its optional “Ludicrous Performance Mode.” Model S comes with true Autopilot capabilities designed to assist the highway driving experience, making it safer and stress free.

🚘 Adaptive Headlight Lighting – Model S features full LED adaptive headlights. Besides enhancing the already great styling, adaptive headlights also boost safety. With 14 three-position LED dynamic turning-lights improve visibility at night, especially on winding roads.

🚘 HEPA Medical Grade Air Filter – Model S now features a Medical grade HEPA air filtration system, which removes 99.97% of particulate exhaust pollution and effectively all allergens, bacteria, and other contaminants from the Cabin Atmosphere. Tesla has a “Bioweapon Defense” mode that creates a Positive Pressure inside the Cabin to protect occupants from any poisonous gasses from entering the Car. Not that we are expecting an attack, but, every day we can be following a Tractor Trailer that is spewing Clouds of Black Soot and Toxic Fumes… this screen activated mode, protects everyone in the Car from being “gassed” by every-day driving hazards.

🚘 Autopilot – Tesla’s Autopilot performs the following comprehensive tasks (A) assists Model S with steering, by keeping the Car within your Lane, (B) Change lanes with the simple tap of a turn signal (C) Manages Speed by using active, traffic-aware cruise control assuring safe following distance from the Car ahead (D) Digitally controls the motors, brakes, and steering mechanisms, to help avoid collisions from either Frontally and Sides (E) Prevents the car from wandering off the road, as often occurs when a sleepy driver dozes.

🚘 Tesla AutoPilot also enables your car to Scan for an adequate Parking Space, and will Parallel Park on the Driver’s command. Tesla’s Summon, is a new feature that permits the Driver to “Call your Car” using your iPhone. When the Driver Summon’s their Car, the AutoPilot controls the car where it self-drives your empty Car, to meet you at your Front Door, all systems on GO. Tesla’s Autopilot features are progressively enabled over time with periodic software updates. The latest software update 7.0 added the “Summon” feature mentioned above.

🚘 Automatic Steering with Traffic Aware Cruise Control – Active sensors combined with GPS and high resolution digital maps comprise a mutually reinforcing system that pilots Model S along the highway, staying within your lane, even in stop and go traffic.

🚘 AutoPilot with Real-Time Learning – RealTime automated feedback from Tesla’s fleet of over 100,000 of Model S and X Cars. Think about it. All Tesla Car’s onboard Computers are periodically reporting to the “Mother Ship” information about the accuracy of its AutoPilot functions and Driver Assist features.

🚘 AutoPilot – If the Tesla Computer is driving “off course” where the Driver intercedes with a “course correction” the Car’s onBoard Computer makes note of these “autonomous driving errors” and transmits each occurrence to Tesla’s home office. All these course corrections and adjustments from all over the world, from Tesla’s Fleet of over 100,000 cars are assimilated. Software engineers will augment the navigation program accordingly, to ensure these systems are continually Learning and Improving upon itself. Tesla transmits a “Smarter, Trained, AutoPilot” into your Model S, Model X, Model 3 Computer system, periodically.

🚘 Dual Motor Model S is a categorical improvement on conventional all-wheel drive systems. With two motors, one in the front and one in the rear, Model S digitally and independently controls torque to the front and rear wheels. The result is unparalleled traction control in all road and climate conditions.

🚘 Model S, it’s two Motors are lighter, smaller, and more efficient than the Gasoline Car counterparts, providing both improved Range and faster Acceleration. In contrast, conventional all-wheel drive cars employ complex mechanical linkages and transaxles to distribute power from a single engine to all four wheels. This sacrifices energy efficiency in favor of all-weather traction.

🚘 Model S Performance comes standard with All-Wheel Drive Dual Motors, pairing the high performance rear motor with a high efficiency front motor to achieve “SuperCar” acceleration, from zero to 60 miles per hour in 2.8 seconds.

🚘 Model S is Built around the Driver – Model S is a Car-Driver’s car. The cabin combines meticulous noise-abatement engineering with Tesla’s uniquely quiet powertrain to obtain the Sound Dynamics of a Recording Studio. Having recently driven the Model S, one of the most stunning observations Driving the Model S is the “Total Silence” one experiences when putting on a Pair of BOSE noise-cancelling Headphones.

🚘 Touchscreen – The Model S is controlled an impressive 17″ touchscreen, is the interior centerpiece, high-resolution Display. The LCD display is angled toward the Driver and includes both day and night modes for better visibility without distraction. The Display puts rich and important content at the Driver’s fingertips providing mobile [cellular] connectivity. The Driver can easily find a destination, favorite song, or a new restaurant, PLUS the display controls most of the car’s functions. Opening the all glass panoramic roof, customizing the automatic climate control, setting the AutoPilot parameters, changing the radio station, all happen with a swipe or a touch. The touchscreen, digital instrument cluster, and steering wheel controls seamlessly integrate media, navigation, communications, cabin controls and vehicle data.

🚘 Model S is designed from the ground up to be the safest car on the road, according to Tesla. Much of its safety is owed to the unique electric drivetrain and the 1200 pound Battery pack that sits beneath the car’s aluminum occupant cell in its own subframe. This unique positioning substantially lowers the car’s center of gravity, which improves handling and minimizes rollover risk, and replaces the heavy engine block with impact absorbing boron steel rails.

🚘 Side impacts are met by aluminum pillars reinforced with steel rails to reduce intrusion, protecting occupants and the battery pack while improving roof stiffness. In the event of an accident, eight airbags protect front and rear occupants, and the 90 kWh Battery [a high-voltage 400v DC, 225 Amp array of LiOn Cells] is automatically disconnected.

🚘 Tesla Launch Event of for the Model X – Sept 29, 2015 by Tesla Motors –

🚘 According to Tesla Motors, the Model X is the safest, fastest and most capable sport utility vehicle in history. With all-wheel drive and a 90 kWh battery providing 257 miles of range [an EPA stat], Model X has ample seating for up to seven adults [with 3 seating options] and all of their gear. The Model X it’s ludicrously fast, accelerating from zero to 60 MPH in as quick as 3.2 seconds [with High Performance Option]. Model X is the no-compromise SUV.

🚘 Tesla states that it’s Model X is designed with safety as the first priority. The floor-mounted 1200 pound battery lowers the center of gravity so that the risk of rollover is “half the risk” any other SUV in its class. The battery structure strengthens Model X against side impact intrusions. Without a gasoline engine, the Model X’s large front trunk acts as a giant impact-absorbing crumple zone. Tesla’s own internally conducted crash testing indicates that Model X has the expectation, to be the first SUV to receive the highest safety rating in every category; although as of this writing, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has not yet conducted crash testing on the Model X.

🚘 Active Safety: Model X continually scans the surrounding roadway with cameras, radar and sonar systems, providing the driver with real-time feedback to help avoid collisions. Even at highway speeds, Model X is designed to automatically apply brakes in an emergency.

🚘 Falcon Wing doors allow easy access to second and third row seats from even a tight parking space, while traditional SUV doors or Minivan sliding doors would not grant any access.

🚘 With only a foot of clearance on either side, Falcon Wing doors articulate smoothly up and out of the way, allowing passengers to enter from both front and rear directions. The side and overhead opening is so large that parents can buckle children in without ducking or straining and without bumping their child’s head on the roof.

🚘 Aerodynamic, Model X is able to achieve 257 miles of range in part because it is the most aerodynamic SUV in production. With a Drag Coefficient of 0.24, Model X’s Wind Resistance is 20% lower than the next best SUV, better than most all other Cars period. In addition, an active spoiler deploys from the rear lift-gate optimizes highway efficiency and stability.

🚘 Big Sky Effect – Model X has the largest all glass panoramic windshield in production, providing an unparalleled view of the road, scenery, stars, and sky above. Optimized solar-tinting and obstruction-free view, creates unlimited visibility for the driver and all passengers.

🚘 Autopilot – Tesla’s Autopilot performs the following comprehensive tasks (A) assists Model S with steering, by keeping the Car within your Lane, (B) Change lanes with the simple tap of a turn signal (C) Manages Speed by using active, traffic-aware cruise control assuring safe following distance from the Car ahead (D) Digitally controls the motors, brakes, and steering mechanisms, to help avoid collisions from either Frontally and Sides (E) Prevents the car from wandering off the road, as often occurs when a sleepy driver dozes.

🚘 Tesla AutoPilot also enables your car to Scan for an adequate Parking Space, and will Parallel Park on the Driver’s command. Tesla’s Summon, is a new feature that permits the Driver to “Call your Car” using your iPhone. When the Driver Summon’s their Car, the AutoPilot controls the car where it self-drives your empty Car, to meet you at your Front Door, all systems on GO. Tesla’s Autopilot features are progressively enabled over time with periodic software updates. The latest software update 7.0 added the “Summon” feature mentioned above.

🚘 Automatic Steering with Traffic Aware Cruise Control – Active sensors combined with GPS and high resolution digital maps comprise a mutually reinforcing system that pilots Model S along the highway, staying within your lane, even in stop and go traffic.

🚘 AutoPilot with Real-Time Learning – RealTime automated feedback from Tesla’s fleet of over 100,000 of Model S and X Cars. Think about it. All Tesla Car’s onboard Computers are periodically reporting to the “Mother Ship” information about the accuracy of its AutoPilot functions and Driver Assist features.

🚘 AutoPilot – If the Tesla Computer is driving “off course” where the Driver intercedes with a “course correction” the Car’s onBoard Computer makes note of these “autonomous driving errors” and transmits each to Tesla’s home office. All these course corrections and adjustments from all over the world, from Tesla’s Fleet of over 100,000 cars are assimilated, to ensure these systems are continually Learning and Improving upon itself. Tesla transmits a “Smarter, Trained, AutoPilot” into your Model S, Model X, Model 3 Computer system, periodically.

🚘 Seating for Seven – Model X comfortably seats seven people in three rows: 2F, 3M, 2R. Every seat is the best seat in the house; however, the Middle Row of 3 seats are a work of art. Mounted on a single post and independently reclining, each second row seat is designed to maximize passenger comfort, legroom, under seat storage and access to the third row. The third row seats fold flat when not in use and the second row seats lean forward and out of the way for even more cargo area

🚘 Technology and Specifications
β€’ Regular over-the-air updates add safety and navigation features, enhance performance and improve the driver experience
β€’ Free Charge-ups at Tesla’s Supercharger network
β€’ Maps and navigation with real-time traffic information
β€’ Center console with a quick connect iPhone dock
β€’ GPS enabled Homelink
β€’ Electric All-Wheel Drive for max efficiency/traction
β€’ Active safety technologies: side collision avoidance, automatic emergency braking
β€’ Parking sensors and blind spot warning
β€’ Full LED headlamps
β€’ Power-folding, heated side mirrors
β€’ Up to four LATCH child seat attachments
β€’ Largest glass panoramic windshield in production, providing unparalleled views
β€’ Falcon Wing doors allow access to 2nd, 3rd row seats
β€’ Automatic keyless entry
β€’ Automatic rear lift-gate opening
β€’ Large interior storage capacity of 77 cubic feet
β€’ Front trunk with room for luggage, strollers or golf bags
β€’ Warranty is 8 years, infinite mile Battery and Drive Unit
β€’ Warranty is 4 years, 50,000 mile limit for entire Car

🚘 Admittedly, before engaging with our Tesla Comparisons, it was believed that the Model S was the Larger Car, yes, the “S” is likely lower to the Ground, and it is. Having seen both cars “up close and personal” the Model S visually gives the appearance of being a Heavier, Longer and Wider machine.

🚘 Comparison-List of Specs for Model X and Model S for 9⃣ key measures; the results were quite surprising. Here are a few of the biggest surprises: the Model X is 624 Pounds Heavier, The Model X is Wider by 4″, it’s also Longer by 2″, and more Shoulder Room by 3″ Wider, Head Room is almost 3″ Taller for those big guys, and Hip Room is over 4″ Wider too.

🚘 Truthfully, I’m already “Sold on the entire Tesla concept” however, Comparing both Models. But after a fairly extensive research effort, to render this article worthwhile, my 1st choice Model changed, back and forth, both ways, this way and that way… I thought this would be an easy pick. Selecting a Car is a personal matter. The Style, Look, Power, AWD, RWD, Utility, Speed, Range, Software, Suspension, Colors and Materials… Which Model is best for you, the “X” or the “S” ? Read on, it may help with your selection.

🚘 The Challenge as Electric Vehicles become “Mainstream” particularly in light of Tesla’s new Model 3 Reveal, midnight (March 31st-April 1st) just three weeks ago, Tesla received over 325,000 Reservation Deposits of $1000 in One Week. This is an unheard of huge global “Reservation-List” for a new Car that no one at the time had actually seen yet, albeit an affordable $35,000 beauty. (We’ve collected some stunning pictures and video clips below).

🚘 Whether it’s TESLA Cars or the other 25-flavors of electric cars sold in the US last year, for example, the Top Three: 92,700 Chevy Volts, 92,500 Nissan Leafs, 63,100 Tesla Model S Cars, are among the 410,000 electric vehicles sold last year, plus 12,200 charging stations and 30,700 Public Charging points in the US. Where are all those Charging locations that have the “Type of Juice” a Tesla requires? How much will it Take? How many Miles can be driven with an Electric Fill-Up? In a Reasonable amount of Time… how much Time?

🚘 The Buzz Words, AC, DC, kWh, SAE-J1772, CHAdeMO, RPH not MPH, DC not CD, Current-Flow, no more High-Test or Low-Test… So What’s with the Watts, Range, Amps, Volts, Bolts and Leafs. Fear Not, scroll-down to this “––Previously Reported––” marker, where we’ve explained many of these terms, which serves as a guide for your New Tesla, to keep you energized and literally Charged. Globally, there are over 1.2 Billion Gas and Electric cars driving on the roads today, with over 600,000 electric cars last year.

🚘 Model X Proposed Order formulated on Tesla’s Design Center showing options selected.

🚘 Model S Range Per Charge chart shows four Model S configurations showing the (Milage) Range for a fully charged Model S, that you’d anticipate depending on the Battery Size of 70 kWh or the 90 kWh, and Motor D configuration (2-wheel drive or 4-wheel drive) selections. Notice, Ambient Temperature was turned up to 90ΒΊF, Average driving speed was set at 45mph, and the A/C On, using 19″ wheels.

🚘 Tesla Model S 90D Achieves over 400 Mile Range on One Charge, is very impressive, as no other Electric Car has even half this Range. [443 Mile Range with A/C off, 392 Mile Range with A/C on, average driving speed 45mph]. Tesla says, each year, their engineers expect its LiON Battery Technologies will improve kWh Capacity and Range by around 5%-to-10% per Year, due to engineering efficiencies and improvements of the LiON cell structure and chemistry. These individual LiON-Cells are quite important; The 90 kWh LiON battery contains 7104 cells housed within 16 modules, containing 444 cells in each module. [Each Module delivers 25v DC at 225 Amps. The Math: 16 Modules at 25v DC equals 400 vDC at 225Amps, which equals 90kWh of Power.] Tesla’s Lithium Battery pack containing a “bazillion small cells” [well 7104 cells] was probably my biggest surprise.

πŸ”‹ TESLA has been thinking about these topics that only great automotive engineers consider regarding Fuel (electric or gas) Efficiency, the $Cost/Mile driven; however, lets keep it simple for now, by excluding these important items: Tire replacement, Drivers’ aggressive driving habits (hard acceleration, braking, hard turns), the engine, drivetrain, fuel-grade, etc. Let’s exclude all the items above, and read on.

🚘 The following items, are very important “external factors” engineers are very interested in, that effect (Milage) $Cost/Mile efficiency: (1) Wind Resistance on the Car’s external surfaces (Coefficient of Aerodynamic Drag), overall-shape, front-grill, door-handles, antennas, windshield-wipers (2) Tire Friction, the interaction of the tires on the paved streets, camber, caster, alignment and (3) the Wheel-Bearings. All these factors require [more] energy to overcome their effect on Car’s performance.

🚘 Considering all these Internal and External Engineering Factors, TESLA has designed a precision 4-door sedan using electric propulsion… winning awards from the entire automotive industry globally, combined with over 80,000 pleased Tesla Model S owners. Elon Musk while on-stage said, the gross margins on the Model S sales, helped to finance the development their new Model 3 Car unveiled April 1 at midnight. While on stage, Musk thanked the audience for buying the Model S… or else the “Model 3 would not be here this evening…” The Model 3 being Tesla’s answer for a truly “affordable electric car” priced at $35,000 for the mainstream.

🚘 Currently, Tesla Motors builds their Model S and Model X to the specifications defined by each Buyer as they order their Custom TESLAs. Currently the Tesla production-line is delivering over 4,100 Tesla cars per month, a bit over 50,000 cars/year during 2015. Next year Model S production is planned to ramp-up to 100,000 cars/year. In 2018 Tesla will begin ramping-up their new Model 3 affordable, $35,000 car for the masses, in effort to satisfy some portion of the 325,000 reservations it received within a week of the Model-3 REVEAL on 4/1/16.

🚘 That said, let’s build our Model S Car with a good selection of features, as Tesla decided that they are building each Car for each Buyer, “Build-to-Order” plan, not the reverse. Many other car manufacturers produce cars with company designed options, filling Car Lots with large inventories of Cars they Hope the folks will desire.

🚘 First Step is to decide about the 70 kWh Battery or the 90 kWh Battery. The larger 90 kWh battery pack will provide more power and greater Range (miles) per Full Charge. In gasoline terms, do we want a Larger “Fuel Tank” or a smaller one. Since Electric Vehicles are charged in one’s residential garage, and when on the highways, the number of Tesla SuperChargers, it’s charger infrastructures of 615 current Stations, is not fully developed; therefore we’d recommend the Longest-Range battery available, to mitigate the issue of fewer Fast-Fueling (Charger) locations.

🚘 Several years from now, having the Largest Battery [largest fuel tank] may be not as important a consideration, as it is today. Therefore, lets select the 90 kWh Battery. Next, do we recommend 2-wheel drive or 4-wheel drive. With the Model S there are several combinations of choices, for battery size and 2-Wheel or All-Wheel drive. The 90D gives an excellent balance of Range, Power, and 4-Wheel drive.

🚘 TESLA’s Model S 90D All-Wheel drive is Recommended as displayed above. If one desired greater performance, then the P90D could have been selected for a $20,000 premium. The Model S 90D selection is provides an excellent balance of power and range with a base price of $89,000. Let’s recommend this model.

🚘 Next, let’s select the exterior Paint Color, Interior treatments, Panoramic Roof and Wheels. Let’s pick fire engine RED for the Car’s exterior color, a $1500 extra, the panoramic all glass roof for $1500, Next Gen Leather for $2500, standard wheels, Dark Ash wood interior treatment, and the Black Headliner. This brings the Model S price to $98,000 which includes the $3000 Premium interior package shown below.

🚘 TESLA’s Model S: An Important Option to consider is their High Amp Charger package, also known as the Dual-Charger package for $1500. This electronics package is [simply] a more powerful AC-to-DC [internal, under the hood] Converter. If you do not have this High Amp package, you will be trapped at an annoyingly “Very Slow Fill Rate” particularly, when you’re in a hurry during the day. [My guess Tesla will eventually include this as “Standard” equipment.]

🚘 Think about the number of times you’re Driving around town on ΒΌTank. This High Amp Kit permits the Car to be Charged at TWICE the RPH rate (range per hour) with a Public Charger, or your Garage. (in Technical terms for your electrician, the Power requirements: a 100Amp, 240v AC dedicated circuit.) When you Plug into this high power circuit, it permits a FAST-Charge Rate of 60 miles of Range Per Hour, or 60 minutes of Charging, this is RPH. Therefore, plugging-in over night, with 3 hours of charging we’d add 180 miles of driving Range. With the 90 kWh battery, in 3-5 hours we’d get a complete Fill-Up of power for the next days’ driving. This is important, BUT more importantly, is “Filling” your TESLA at a Curb-side Public Charger for 20 miles of Range with only 20 minutes of charging. [We are now at $99,500 for this Car, but we’re not quite done. There are several other Options to consider.]

🚘 TESLA’s Model S AutoPilot Convenience Feature. This package is an on-board Software package installed onto the Car’s Computer System. The Hardware is already included with all Tesla cars. AutoPilot operates by assisting the Driver to stay in-Lane on highways, assists in changing lanes by using its 360ΒΊ array of sensors to guide the Car when you want to change lanes, it also checks for any cars in front or you, plus left & right sides, making sure there is ample and safe distance from the car in front, and adjusting speed up-or-down, to maintain a safe margins. This system also provides for automated Parallel Parking. Tesla as been improving the Tesla onboard computer, presently up to software upgrade 7.1. Tesla will improve and upgrade the Car’s software from time to time [at 3am] when your sleeping… adding new and improved capabilities.

🚘 Tesla is committed to new innovations for its “AutoPilot” program, adding features, to enhance the Driver experience, for Public safety, plus Driver safety and convenience. Elon Musk says Tesla’s GOAL is to have their Tesla AutoPilot function as a true Autonomous-Driving experience, once fully tested and obtains Government DOT approval, said to be “achieved in several years, less than 5.” My thoughts, if we’re buying a $100k+ car, let’s spend another 2.5% and get this amazing driver-assist. Let’s include this $2500 option. [Our next article may be only about Tesla’s AutoPilot, it’s that exciting.]

🚘 TESLA’s Model S Ultra High Fidelity Sound System. Yes, let’s recommend incredible Sound for a very special Ultra-Quite Car. This system redefines the automotive audio experience, but is more than a bigger amplifier and more speakers. This is a $2500 option likely worth the added expense; having driven the Model S several months ago, the sound system gives the impression that you’ve entered a “Recording Studio Sound Stage.” Pure, Clean, Detailed, Undistorted, Sound, surrounding You and your Passengers, which otherwise is totally quite with No engine noise nor noticeable road-roar, even when driving at expressway speeds. [We are now up to a $104,500 Model S package. Almost done with Options to consider.]

🚘 TESLA’s Model S: Air Suspension is Very Smart. This package permits the Car to be intelligently elevated [further] above street grade, to handle steep driveways or undulating roads, where having greater ground-clearance is safe and beneficial. The onboard Computer system remembers where the driver made this onScreen manual elevation-adjustment; When you drive to this same GPS position, the Car will elevate automatically. When you arrive at your driveway or a restaurant, or where Passengers are unloading, the Driver can manually increase the elevation of the Car, making for an improved exit-experience for yourself, your passengers, and their baggage. We have now completed the Option-package recommendations; the Model S is priced at $108,200 including Tesla’s $1200 delivery charge and documentation costs.

🚘 TESLA’s Model S final configuration including all the chosen options are displayed in the graphic below. Recall, Tesla has chosen the Customize your Car, “Build-to-Order” business model. Our Car with the options we desire are ordered with a $2500 refundable deposit; Once your Build-to-Order Custom Car enters the Production Line your $2500 deposit, becomes non-refundable. [Buyers are notified (warned) prior to their deposit going “hard”.] Your car should be ready for delivery in about 6 weeks based on Tesla’s current back-log of orders to be filled, or thereafter if we chose a later delivery date, giving consideration for Tesla’s then Production delay.

🚘 TESLA’s Model S: Final Configuration with Recommended Options, earns an EPA rating of 103 eMPG, the “electric” equivalency of MPG. When charging the Model S with an electric-utility cost of 12Β’/kWh, our Fuel-Cost in miles driven is 3.95Β’/mile, therefore for 15,000 miles driven, the EPA has determined the Annual Cost is $600. According to the EPA in five years the total cost savings is $9,600 as compared to an equivalent Gasoline Powered car. [There is extensive testing performed by the EPA with factory interaction to establish fair EPA Disclosure stickers.]

🚘 In Sum, assuming the Federal Government continues its $7,500 Tax Incentive, combined with the $9,600 five year savings in fuel cost, we’d experience an Overall Savings of $17,100 in Five Years and if she retained the Car for 8 years, we’d save another $5,760 for 3 more years, reaching the 8-year warranty expiration. Our new Tesla Model S car’s cost is $108,200 delivered, (less $17,100 and $5,760) Savings Total of $22,860 for a Model S net cost $85,340 which had an 8 Year [unlimited milage] Battery warranty, and 8 years on the Motor and Drive unit.

Tesla Model X Purchase Summary with Options is consistent with the Model S choices outlined above. Apparently, the four items below, are Options at an extra [$6500] cost for the Model S, however, for Model X these same items are “Standard” and “included” in the base price of the Car: (A) All Glass Panoramic Roof [$1500] (B) 20″ Premium Wheels [$2500] (C) Black Alcantara Headliner (D) Smart Suspension [$2500]. If visiting in their Design Studio for the Model X, there are selections for added Seating for up to 7 passengers, otherwise the Model X seats 5 comfortably.

Compare Tesla Model S with Model X Physical Specifications. When examining the specifications of these two Cars, the Model X external Car Body is longer in length and wider in width; Either Car Body is attached to the exact same Wheel Base Frame. Without getting into the weeds, both Cars have the exact same wheel-base, front wheel tracking, and rear wheel tracking. However, there are nine important differences worth mentioning listed below

1⃣ Model X Curb Weight is 5,271 Pounds, Heavier by 624 pounds, surprisingly
2⃣ Model X Length, overall is 16’6″, Longer by about 2.3″
3⃣ Model X Width, overall, Mirrors folded is 7’5″, Wider by about 4.2″
4⃣ Model X Ground Clearance is 7.55″, Higher Above-Ground by 1.9″
5⃣ Model X Shoulder Room is 60.7″, Wider by 3.0″, noticeable by Big folks
6⃣ Model X Leg Room Average is 39.8″, Longer by 0.4″, no one will notice
7⃣ Model X Head Room is 41.7″, Higher by 2.9″, noticeable by Tall folks
8⃣ Model X Hip Room Rear Seats is 59.0″, Wider by 4.3″, noticeable by Big folks
9⃣ Model X Cargo Room is 77 cu.ft., Larger by 46 cu.ft. due to Hatchback design

πŸ”‹ High-Power DC Charger Stations are the future of Electric Vehicles adoption by the masses. This is the Main reason Tesla is building a huge infrastructure of SuperCharger Stations. The drive-in charger lanes deliver 120 kWh of DC directly into Tesla Cars, where you can add 170 miles of Range in 30 minutes, or 100 miles of Range in 20 minutes, etc. Cost and over-heating issues, limit the power levels an EV Car’s internal rectifier-circuit can handle in the vehicle. Therefore, for power requirements over 240vAC at 80 Amps (19.2 kWh), external charging station are more efficient delivering DC power directly into the vehicle’s LiON battery. Combine these factors with the EV industry’s desire to “Refill EV Cars quickly…”

Visit Tesla’s Charging Calculator, to change Energy cost or another parameter. (All samples displayed are set for $0.12/kWh the US average for Electricity) This Link contains the Charging Calculator, then scroll-Down to the Calculator.

Charging Examples displayed below Demonstrate a Residential Garage setup, using a 100A, 240v AC dedicated circuit, for charging all Tesla Models that contain the $1500 optional High Amperage Charger. This setup in the Car and in the Garage, delivers 19.2 kWh of Power into the Car’s High Amperage Charger which converts the high power AC to DC to energize the massive 1200 pound Tesla Battery pack.

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